Types of Cholesterol and How They Work in Your Body
Cholesterol is carried through the circulatory system on two lipoproteins: high-density lipoproteins (HDL), often referred to as “good” cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also called “bad” cholesterol.
HDL has been labeled “good” cholesterolbecause it removes LDL cholesterol from the arteries and takes it to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body, according to the AHA.
LDL is termed “bad” cholesterol because when there is too much of it circulating in the blood (more than the good HDL scavengers can scoop up and ferry away), it can eventually build up in the form of plaque on the walls of your arteries. This is called atherosclerosis. Over time, this narrows the arteries and raises the risk for heart attack, stroke, and peripheral artery disease, notes the AHA.
A high level of triglycerides — the most common type of fat in your body — can also lead to fatty buildups in your arteries and increase your risk of heart attack and stroke, if combined with high LDL or low HDL cholesterol levels, per the AHA.
Why Are Some People More Likely to Have High Cholesterol Than Others?
Understanding why some people have high cholesterol numbers and others don’t isn’t as simple as it might seem. For example, while overweight people are more likely to have high cholesterol, thin people can have it as well, notes the AHA.
Here are some factors that affect your cholesterol levels:
A condition called familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may make some people genetically prone to high levels of bad cholesterol. There are two types of FH: heterozygous, in which a person inherits the abnormal gene from one parent only; and homozygous, in which the person has two copies of the abdominal gene, one from each parent. Homozygous FH is both more rare and more dangerous. People with FH don’t recycle LDL cholesterol as effectively and end up with high levels of this type of cholesterol, making them more prone to atherosclerosis, often starting at far younger ages. About 1 in 200 adults have the FH genetic mutation, according to the AHA. If left untreated, these individuals have a 20 times higher risk of developing heart disease.
If you have a parent, sibling, or child who has FH or who had a heart attack early in life, it’s recommended that you get tested for the condition. (The majority of FH patients need cholesterol-lowering drugs such as a statin to keep their cholesterol numbers in a healthy range.)
While smoking doesn’t directly cause high cholesterol, it is by itself a major proven risk for heart disease and stroke. That risk rises if you also have high LDL cholesterol levels. One reason is that smoking lowers your levels of HDL, helping to diminish or erase that form of cholesterol’s protective effect, according to the AHA.
Quitting smoking has immediate benefits on your heart health. A research review published in the journal Biomarker Research found that HDL levels increase almost immediately in people who quit smoking.
When it comes to what you eat, the best way to lower your cholesterol is to reduce your intake of saturated fat and trans fat, according to the AHA, which recommends limiting saturated fat to less than 6 percent of daily calories and minimizing the amount of trans fat you eat. This means cutting back on red meat, tropical oils, fried foods, and full-fat dairy.
Instead, opt for low-fat or fat-free dairy products, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish, nuts, and nontropical vegetable oils. Healthier cooking oils include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, sunflower, vegetable oil, and other specialty oils, notes the AHA. As a general rule, says Dr. Gutierrez, “consume a diet that is based mostly on whole, plant-based foods and is low in saturated and animal fats.”
Getting Tested: What Do Blood Cholesterol Test Results Mean?
The AHA recommends that all Americans over age 20 get their cholesterol levels tested every four to six years. Your doctor may recommend getting your cholesterol tested more frequently in middle age because your overall risk for heart disease starts to rise.
Here’s what the test will reveal:
- Total Blood CholesterolThink of this as your overall "score." This number is the result of a calculation that adds up HDL and LDL levels, plus 20 percent of your triglyceride level, according to the AHA. Although stated guidelines point to a total cholesterol of below 200 milligrams per decililter (mg/dL) as “desirable” and anything over 239 mg/dL as “high,” this number is less meaningful than it might appear, says Barbara Roberts, MD, a clinical associate professor emerita of medicine at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, and former director of the Women’s Cardiac Center at The Miriam Hospital. She adds that what’s important is the ratio of good to bad cholesterol.
- HDLCholesterolYou want this number to be higher, as a high HDL level is linked with good heart health. An HDL level of 60 mg/dL or higher appears to be protective against heart disease, notes the Cleveland Clinic. In contrast, a level of less than 40 mg/dL appears to be nonprotective and may be harmful.
- LDLCholesterol An LDL of less than 100 mg/dL is the holy grail; a number 129 mg/dL or lower is also good. A range of 130 to 159 mg/dL is borderline high, 160 to 189 mg/dL is high, and above 189 mg/dL is in the danger zone, per the Cleveland Clinic.
- Triglycerides Normal levels of triglycerides vary by age and sex, according to the AHA. Risk factors that can lead to high triglycerides include having diabetes, being overweight or obese, being sedentary, drinking alcohol in excess, and consuming a diet that is high in sugar, processed foods, and saturated fat. A normal level is below 150 mg/dL; if your level is approaching 200 mg/dL, that is borderline high; and anything over 200 mg/dL is high and leaves you at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, per the Cleveland Clinic. A triglyceride level of 500 mg/dL or higher is considered dangerously high.
Facts About Cholesterol-Lowering Medication
If you and your doctor feel it would be wise to lower your cholesterol levels, you may be prescribed a statin drug. Guidelines put out by the AHA and the American College of Cardiology in 2019 say that the decision to start statin therapy should be based on a calculation of your risk for cardiovascular disease over 10 years. (See the risk calculator here.)
Cholesterol numbers, says Gutierrez, are only part of the picture, “though the most current recommendations say that in the presence of diabetes you should start medication when LDL is higher than 70 mg/dL.”
He also points out that it’s important to first try making lifestyle changes, such as:
- Consuming a healthier diet
- Quitting smoking
- Getting blood pressure under control
It’s also important to note that those lifestyle changes should not be abandoned just because you’re taking medication.
Statin drugs work in two ways, says Gutierrez. “They block the enzyme that helps you produce cholesterol in the liver, and they activate the receptors for LDL in your liver cells, so that more cholesterol is ‘captured’ from your blood.”
In addition to statin drugs, a new class of cholesterol-lowering drugs called PCSK9 inhibitorswas approved by theU.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 to treat people with familial hypercholesterolemia and other risk factors. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that work to inactivate a protein in the liver called proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), reducing the amount of LDL circulating in your body.
Cholesterol and Heart Disease: Understanding the Connection
For years, it had been believed that there’s more or less a straight line between cholesterol and heart disease — but recent research suggests that this relationship may be more complex.
A Minneapolis Heart Foundation study, published in April 2017 in the Journal of the American Heart Association, found that many people who have heart attacks don’t have high cholesterol. “The link between cholesterol and heart disease is weak,” says Dr. Roberts, who places a large portion of the blame for the persistence of that link on pharmaceutical advertising for statin drugs. “Statins do lower cholesterol levels,” she says, “but atherosclerosis still progresses” due to factors like age, poor diet, smoking, and so on.
In addition, a review of studies of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease published in August 2015 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that no rigorous connection could be drawn between dietary cholesterol intake and the risk of CVD.
In contrast, the results of long-term research, published in September 2017 in the journal Circulation, concluded that statin use in men with high LDL cholesterol who had no other risk factors for heart disease reduced their rates of coronary heart disease death, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality by 28 percent over 20 years.
Furthermore, a study of more than 400,000 people published in December 2019 in The Lancet found a strong link between non-HDL cholesterol and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease.
Still, when it comes to heart health, your biggest risk factor is age, says Roberts.
To keep your risk of high cholesterol as low as possible and your heart as healthy as you can for as long as you can, eat real (unprocessed) food, exercise regularly, don't smoke, and keep your blood pressure under control.
Additional reporting byAshley Welch.
When President Joe Biden tested positive for COVID-19 on July 21, his physician recommended he take the antiviral drug P
In a clinical trial, people who had mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and were at high risk for becoming seriously ill lowered their risk of being hospitalized with or dying of the disease by 88% if they took Paxlovid within five days of developing symptoms.. Paxlovid is an antiviral medication composed of two drugs: One blocks a key enzyme that the COVID-19 virus needs to replicate; the second blocks the first drug’s metabolism in the liver so it doesn’t leave the body as quickly.. When the Food and Drug Administration authorized the emergency use of Paxlovid, it specified that the drug was to be prescribed to people at high risk of getting severely ill from COVID-19.. But for people who are on drugs such as transplant rejection drugs or anti-arrhythmic drugs that regulate their heartbeats, "these could cause catastrophic complications" if taken with Paxlovid, said Dr. Scott Roberts , assistant professor of infectious diseases at Yale School of Medicine.. In June, the drug’s manufacturer, Pfizer, announced it was discontinuing a clinical trial for standard-risk people because Paxlovid didn’t significantly reduce hospitalization and death in that group.. Perhaps those results aren’t surprising, since "for people who are low-risk, their risk of getting hospitalized is so low that taking Paxlovid isn’t adding any advantage," said Dr. Daniel Kuritzkes , chief of the division of infectious diseases at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston.. Because the rebound occurred in people who got the drug and those who got a placebo, the FDA concluded that "it is unclear at this point that this is related to drug treatment.". Some medical experts wonder whether tweaking the timing or duration of a course of Paxlovid might eliminate the rebound effect some patients experience.. In the FDA’s guidance to providers in May, Dr. John Farley, director of the Office of Infectious Diseases, said, "There is no evidence of benefit at this time for a longer course of treatment (e.g., 10 days rather than the \five days recommended in the Provider Fact Sheet for Paxlovid) or repeating a treatment course of Paxlovid in patients with recurrent COVID-19 symptoms following completion of a treatment course."
PolitiFact | “Paxlovid is still the go-to drug” even though it may not be appropriate for everyone, said one expert.
“Paxlovid is still the go-to drug” even though it may not be appropriate for everyone, said Priya Nori , an infectious disease physician who directs the Montefiore Health System’s COVID outpatient treatment program.. In a clinical trial, people who had mild-to-moderate COVID and were at high risk for becoming seriously ill lowered their risk of being hospitalized with or dying of the disease by 88% if they took Paxlovid within five days of developing symptoms.. Paxlovid is an antiviral medication composed of two drugs: One blocks a key enzyme that the COVID virus needs to replicate; the second blocks the first drug’s metabolism in the liver so it doesn’t leave the body as quickly.. When the Food and Drug Administration authorized the emergency use of Paxlovid, it specified that the drug was to be prescribed to people at high risk of getting severely ill from COVID.. But for people who are on drugs such as transplant rejection drugs or anti-arrhythmic drugs that regulate their heartbeats, “these could cause catastrophic complications” if taken with Paxlovid, said Scott Roberts , assistant professor of infectious diseases at Yale School of Medicine.. In June, the drug’s manufacturer, Pfizer, announced it was discontinuing a clinical trial for standard-risk people because Paxlovid didn’t significantly reduce hospitalization and death in that group.. How often do people experience rebound infections after taking Paxlovid?. A small percentage of people get COVID symptoms and test positive for the coronavirus again after completing a five-day course of Paxlovid.. A study published in June by researchers at the Mayo Clinic found that fewer than 1% of 483 high-risk patients who had received Paxlovid experienced rebound symptoms.. Some medical experts wonder whether tweaking the timing or duration of a course of Paxlovid might eliminate the rebound effect some patients experience.. If people started taking Paxlovid on Day Three of symptoms, instead of right away, for example, their bodies’ defenses could kick in, bolstered by vaccines or previous infections, Nori said.. In the FDA’s guidance to providers in May, John Farley, director of the Office of Infectious Diseases, said, “There is no evidence of benefit at this time for a longer course of treatment (e.g., 10 days rather than the five days recommended in the Provider Fact Sheet for Paxlovid) or repeating a treatment course of Paxlovid in patients with recurrent COVID-19 symptoms following completion of a treatment course.”
Vitamin B5 helps break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates from the food we eat. It is also known as panthothenic acid and has therapeutic qualities.
Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble vitamin from the B group of vitamins.. Vitamin B5 is also known as pantothenic acid, or Pantothenate.. Vitamin B5 helps maintain a healthy digestive system and assists the body in using other vitamins, especially vitamin B2.. Infants 0-6 months – 1.7 milligrams (mg) per day Infants 7-12 months – 1.8 mg per day Children 1 -3 years – 2 mg per day Children 4-8 years – 3 mg per day Children 9-13 years – 4 mg per day Males and females 14 years and over – 5 mg per day Pregnant women – 6 mg per day Breastfeeding women – 7 mg per day. If vitamin B5 is taken as a supplement, it can cause an imbalance in other B vitamins.
Why do some lab tests required fasting and other don't? What are the main fasting labs?. People should fast before doing a blood test because certain foods and drinks can influence the lipids, glucose
For example, if you eat something, anything, and then do a blood glucose test, the chances are that the levels of sugar in your bloodstream might be very high.. Fasting is required before doing a liver blood test to prevent dietary substances to interfere with blood hormones.. You need to fast before doing a metabolic blood test because some foods contain the substances you’re going to be tested for.. You should discontinue supplementation with these vitamins and minerals for at least 1-2 days before doing the test.. Patients are required not to eat foods or drink beverages for at least 6-8 hours before doing a vitamin B12 blood test.. For example, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and lead are popular heavy metals found in the human body.. You are not allowed to eat or drink because some foods contain heavy metals.. Patients should fast for at least 8-10 hours before doing the heavy metal blood test.
In the following article we will explore many different guidelines and recommendations, along with nutritional, activity, and pharmaceutical considerations for elderly with diabetes.
Recommendation for the Eldery with Diabetes Depression screening in the elderly population with diabetes is of great importance, as elderly patients with diabetes experience more isolation, less support, and more feeling of hopelessness. Elderly with Diabetes Pharmaceutical Recommendations Expense of medications With multiple medications being prescribed, expense is a real issue for some elderly with diabetes. * Insulin, GLP-1, other injectable medications—patient or caregiver must have good motor and visual acuity to perform injection, which may be of concern in the elderly with diabetesThe diabetes care team for an elderly patient with diabetes should consist of certified diabetes educators, nurses, doctors or other primary care providers, nutritionists, physical therapists, pharmacists, and others who will appropriately plan and coordinate care for the elderly patient with diabetes.. The goal is always to prevent low blood sugars when working with the elderly with diabetes, while balancing a need to avoid acute problems of high blood sugars and complications of diabetes.. In “Treating the elderly diabetic patient: special considerations”, Kezerle et all give the following recommendation to elderly patients with diabetes : Although most patients with DM2 will require medication over the course of their disease, there is enough evidence to support the fact that older persons can respond well to nutrition therapy and exercise.. The older population with diabetes is at a greater risk of developing the complications of diabetes than their younger peers with diabetes.. Keeping a blood sugar log , tracking your blood sugars via the memory on your meter, or through an app on your smart phone : Talk with your doctor about getting your own home blood glucose meter, and meet with a CDE to learn how to operate your meter and track your blood sugar levels, and use your results to better manage your diabetes Learning to read labels, learning appropriate portion sizes, learning how different foods affect your blood sugar, and learning which foods are appropriate choices for diabetes, and which foods you should leave for a special occasion or treat : Get help with meal planning from a nutritionist, and learn how to grocery shop , eat more lean meats, whole foods such as fruits and vegetables, and whole grains, and how to incorporate good fats into your diet, among many other things Planning an activity program : Learn how exercising effects blood sugar and insulin levels, and work with your diabetes care team to develop an exercise and activity program to meet your personal and healthcare needs. Low blood sugar prevention is the #1 priority. The one thing of the utmost importance with the elderly with diabetes and palliative care is the prevention of low blood sugar.. It’s complicated, because the elderly with diabetes in long term care facilities are great in numbers, due to the increased prevalence of diabetes as we age.. That translates to higher health care costs, as the elderly in palliative care with diabetes have more than double the cost of others their age in long term care without diabetes.
Discover 6 frequently asked questions about blood thinners and alcohol. Learn about risks, signs to contact a doctor, and more.
There are a number of factors that determine how dangerous alcohol consumption is while taking blood thinners.. For the most part, moderate alcohol consumption is safe for people while taking blood thinners as long as they have no major medical problems and are in overall good health.. If you have chronic medical problems associated with either your liver or kidneys , these organs will affect the metabolism (or breakdown) of the blood thinner .. Being on any blood thinner will increase your risk of bleeding.. Severely low blood pressure is a medical emergency.. Get emergency medical care immediately if you or someone else has symptoms of severely low blood pressure.. Many experts believe moderate alcohol consumption has notable and significant health benefits, but not everyone agrees.. There are a number of risks associated with any amount of alcohol consumption.. A 2011 literature review that included 84 prior research studies found that people who drank alcohol had a reduced number of cardiovascular and stroke deaths.. Of all the blood thinners available today, warfarin is most strongly affected by excessive alcohol consumption.. Of these relatively new blood thinners, there are:. It’s relatively safe to consume alcohol as long as you’re in good overall health and have confirmed with a healthcare professional.. Talk with a healthcare professional to find out which blood thinner you qualify for.. He completed medical school at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine in Iowa City, Iowa, internal medicine at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio, and cardiovascular medicine at Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan.
Keep your kidneys healthy. If you have diabetes, get tested for kidney disease once each year.
If you have diabetes, your doctor will likely recommend you have one or more kidney tests to check the health of your kidneys.. Your doctor will likely recommend you have one or more kidney tests to check the health of your kidneys.. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which the kidneys become damaged over time and cannot filter blood as well as they should.. Your doctor will want to check your kidney health, usually by testing your urine and blood.. A urine albumin test result of 30 or above may mean kidney disease.. If you do have kidney disease, the amount of albumin in your urine helps your doctor know which treatment is best for you.. Because your kidneys remove waste, toxins, and extra fluid from the blood, a doctor will also use a blood test to check your kidney function.. If your serum creatinine test results are higher than normal, your doctor may want to run other tests.. Like other kidney tests, a normal GFR number for you will depend on your age and sex.. If your BUN level reveals signs of kidney disease, your doctor will use your BUN test results, along with other tests, to decide on a treatment plan that best fits your needs.. Your doctor may also want to monitor your blood pressure or recommend other tests like imaging or a biopsy to check for any kidney problems.. Because high blood pressure is a leading cause of kidney disease and kidney failure, your doctor will want to monitor your blood pressure.. Imaging tests allow your doctor to see how well blood is flowing to your kidneys or if there is any blockage or narrowing in the blood vessels.
Keto Gummies for Weight Loss: Everything You Need to Know
The keto diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that can help you lose weight.. If you want to lose weight with keto gummies for weight loss, you need to make sure that you are in a state of ketosis.. If you're looking for a way to boost your keto diet results, then you may want to consider trying keto gummies.. While keto pills can help you lose weight, they are not a magic bullet and you will still need to eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly to see the best results.. These supplements are designed to help people who are following the keto diet lose weight by providing them with an alternative source of energy.. These supplements are designed to help people who are following the keto diet lose weight by providing them with an alternative source of energy.. In addition to keto gummies for weight loss, there are a number of other ways to advance your weight loss goals with keto.. However, adding keto gummies for weight loss can help give you an extra edge in your weight loss journey.. Keto gummies are a convenient and easy way to get the benefits of the keto diet without having to give up your favorite foods.. Labs is a keto diet supplement company that produces several other dietary supplements and has the competence to make a high-quality keto diet pill.. Keto Power Boost is a weight loss supplement that claims to help you burn fat and lose weight quickly.. If you are looking for a weight loss supplement that may be able to help you burn fat and lose weight, BioTRUST Keto Elevate is a good option.. If you are looking for a weight loss supplement that may be able to help you burn fat and lose weight, Keto Boost by Prime Health Daily is a good option.. There are a variety of foods you can eat with your keto gummies for weight loss to help achieve your weight loss goal.. There is no magic pill when it comes to weight loss, but if you're looking for a convenient and delicious way to help you reach your weight loss goals, keto gummies may be worth a try.
Is Japanese rice the same as sticky rice? What kind of rice is sushi rice? Learn everything you need to know about Japanese rice in this article today.
Examples of long grains include Jasmine rice, Basmati rice, Mexican rice, traditional American long-grain white or brown rice, and European-grown style of rice.. Examples of medium-grain rice include Bomba rice (used in Paella), Arborio rice, and most of Asian-style rice such as Chinese-style rice.. The first type of rice is uruchimai (粳米), known as the Japanese short-grain rice or ordinary rice, or Japanese rice in short.. So take note that while Japanese rice has a sticky quality compared to the other types of rice such as long-grain Jasmine or Basmati rice, it is not the same as sticky rice.. In fact, the regular Japanese rice is commonly cooked plain for everyday meals, whether it is for Japanese curry , donburi rice bowls or to make onigiri rice balls.. It is only when you are using the rice for sushi, you will then ‘sushi rice’ or sumeshi by seasoning the cooked Japanese rice with vinegar, salt, and sugar.. Japanese rice also comes in a variety— white rice, brown rice, and the newer crops that include genmai/GABA rice, Haigamai, Buzukimai, etc.. For Japanese rice, you have the option of choosing Japanese brown rice, GABA rice, or Haiga rice.