Nutritional Requirements of Goats - Management and Nutrition - MSD Veterinary Manual (2023)

Goats should be provided unlimited access to fresh, clean, freely accessible water. Goats are among the most efficient of domestic animals in their use of water; however, only ~10% of body water loss may prove fatal. They appear to be less subject to high temperature stress than other species of domestic livestock but should be kept in environments that provide shade. In addition to a lesser need for body water evaporation to maintain comfort in hot climates, goats can conserve body losses of water by decreasing losses in urine and feces.

Factors affecting water intake in goats include lactation, environmental temperature, water content of forage consumed, amount of exercise, stage of production (growth, maintenance, lactation, etc), and salt and mineral content of the diet. Goats grazing lush pastures may consume much lower quantities of water than those feeding on dry hay. Still, it is imperative to allow free access to water for all goats regardless of age, breed, purpose, stage of life cycle, or environment.

Energy limitations may result from inadequate feed intake or from poor diet quality; excessive water content of the feedstuffs also may become a limiting factor. Energy requirements are affected by age, body size, body condition, stage of production (growth, maintenance, pregnancy, and lactation), and concurrent medical conditions (eg, parasitism, dental disease, arthritis). Energy requirements also may be affected by the environment, hair growth, activity, and relationship with other nutrients in the diet. Increased temperature, humidity, sunshine, and wind velocity may decrease energy requirements. Shearing mohair from Angora goats and pashmina from Cashmere goats decreases insulation and results in increased energy needs (at least in colder environments).

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Goats exhibit a wide range of grazing activity, ranging from light activity for goats under intensive management, through moderate activity on semiarid land, to high activity for goats grazing on sparsely vegetated grassland and on mountainous pastures that necessitate long-distance travel daily.

The best assessment of energy intake adequacy in goats is proper body condition or fat covering the loin, brisket, inner thigh, and ribs. Using herd/individual medical record systems, a standardized body condition score (1–5, with 1 being extremely thin, to 5 being extremely obese) should be used to monitor body fat changes and make less subjective decisions with respect to longterm dietary energy adequacy. More details on body condition assessment in goats is available from Michigan State University Extension. If animals are parasite- and disease-free, yet underconditioned, then they are usually being fed an energy-deficient diet; the reverse is true for obese animals. The energy values required for growth and lactation are very comparable to the numbers used for sheep and cattle, respectively. Therefore, sheep nutrition principles from an energy standpoint will probably suffice when dealing with all classes of goats, except for lactating dairy goats.

Protein is required for most normal functions of the body, including maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation, hair production, and the immune system. Protein deficiencies in the diet deplete stores in the blood, liver, and muscles and predispose animals to a variety of serious and even fatal ailments. Feed intake and dietary digestibility are reduced if dietary crude protein is <6%, further compounding an energy-protein deficiency; thus, for maintenance of mature, healthy animals, the diet should have a minimum of 7% crude protein. Dietary crude protein requirements are higher for growth, gestation, and lactation.

Most forages contain adequate amounts of dietary protein for maintenance, but lactating, growing, sick, or debilitated animals may require diets fortified with legumes or protein supplements (eg, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, etc). Feeding adequate to slightly greater amounts of protein than required appears to aid in the control (both resistance and resilience) of internal nematode parasites.

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Requirements for minerals have not been established definitively for goats at either maintenance or production levels. Research has been conducted with goats in mineral metabolism studies, especially with calcium and phosphorus. In general, these data support assumptions that several mineral requirements for goats are similar to those for sheep. (For detailed nutrient requirements for goats, refer to the most current Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants, published by the National Research Council; www.nap.edu .) Feeding to meet the goat’s needs will maximize its production, reproduction, and immune system. The addition of specific minerals (phosphorus for dry winter forages, selenium in deficient areas, etc) to salt (NaCl), preferably in granular form and offered free choice, helps prevent most mineral deficiencies and improves performance.

Calcium requirements are generally met under grazing conditions with either Angora or meat-type goats, but levels should be checked in high-producing dairy goats because deficiency can lead to reduced milk production. Adequate levels of calcium for lactating goats are necessary to prevent parturient paresis (milk fever). In browsing or grain-fed goats, the addition of a calcium supplement (dicalcium phosphate, limestone, etc) to the feed or to a salt or trace mineral–salt mixture usually meets calcium requirements. Legumes (eg, clover, alfalfa, kudzu) are also good sources of calcium.

Phosphorus deficiency results in slowed growth, unthrifty appearance, and occasionally a depraved appetite. Goats can maintain milk production on phosphorus-deficient diets for several weeks by using phosphorus from body reserves, but during long periods of phosphorus deficiency, milk production was shown to decline by 60%. The calcium:phosphorus ratio should be maintained between 1:1 and 2:1, preferably 1.2–1.5:1 in goats because of their predisposition for urinary calculi. Phosphorus deficiency in grazing goats is more likely than a calcium deficiency. In cases of struvite calculi, the ratio should be maintained at 2:1.

Magnesium deficiency is associated with hypomagnesemic tetany (grass tetany), but ordinarily this condition is less common in grazing goats than it is in cattle. Goats do have marginal ability to compensate for low magnesium by decreasing the amount of magnesium they excrete. Both urinary excretion and milk production are reduced in a magnesium deficiency.

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Salt (NaCl) is usually recognized as a necessary dietary component but is often forgotten. Goats may consume more salt than is required when it is offered ad lib; this does not present a nutritional problem but may depress feed and water intakes in some arid areas where salt content of the drinking water is quite high. Salt formulations are used as carriers for trace minerals, because goats have a clear drive for sodium intake.

Potassium has an important role in metabolism. However, forages generally are quite rich in potassium, so a deficiency in grazing goats is extremely rare. Marginal potassium intake is seen only in heavily lactating does fed diets composed predominately of cereal grains. Excessive potassium intake (particularly in late gestation) may be associated with hypocalcemia in dairy goats. If hypocalcemia is a herd problem, attention should be paid to reducing or monitoring potassium-rich feedstuffs (eg, alfalfa).

Iron deficiency is seldom seen in mature grazing goats. Such deficiency might be seen in young kids because of their minimal stores at birth, plus the low iron content of the dam’s milk. This is more commonly seen in kids fed in complete confinement and heavily parasitized animals. Iron deficiency can be prevented by access to pasture or a good quality trace mineral salt containing iron. In severe cases, and for kids reared in confinement, iron dextran injections at 2- to 3-week intervals (150 mg, IM) for the first few months may be curative. In the cases of mixed iron/selenium deficiencies, caution should be used when injecting iron dextrans until the selenium deficiency is also corrected.

Iodine deficiency in the soil, and in the crops produced thereon, is seen in some areas of the USA. Therefore, iodine should be provided in stabilized salt. Conditional iodine deficiency may develop with normal to marginal iodine intake in goats consuming goitrogenous plants. Marked deficiency of iodine results in an enlarged thyroid; poor growth; small, weak kids at birth; and poor reproductive ability.

Zinc deficiency results in parakeratosis, stiffness of joints, smaller testicles, and lowered libido. A minimal level of 10 ppm of zinc in the diet, or a trace mineral salt mixture of 0.5%–2% zinc, prevents deficiencies. Excessive dietary calcium (alfalfa) may increase the likelihood of zinc deficiency in goats.

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Copper deficiency may result in microcytic anemia, poor production, lighter or faded hair color, poor fiber quality, infertility, poor health and slowed growth, some forms of metabolic bone disease, diarrhea, and possibly a greater susceptibility to internal parasites. Copper deficiency in a diet may be caused by inadequate copper intake, a lowered copper-molybdenum ratio, or excessive dietary sulfur. Goats appear to be much more resistant to copper toxicity than sheep.

Selenium deficiency in the diet is usually associated with nutritional muscular dystrophy, retained placentas and metritis, poor growth, weak or premature kids, and mastitis.

Recommendations for vitamin requirements of goats are even more sparse than for mineral requirements. At best, almost all vitamin recommendations for goats must be based on those for sheep ( see Nutrition: Sheep Nutrition: Sheep ).

FAQs

What are the nutritional requirements for a goat? ›

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfur and chlorides are a few of the macrominerals needed in a goat's diet. Microminerals usually supplemented in goat rations are iron, copper, cobalt, manganese, zinc, iodine, selenium, molybdenum, and others.

What are the nutrients required by goat and their role? ›

Meat goats require nutrients for body maintenance, growth, reproduction, pregnancy, and production of products such as meat, milk and hair. The groups of nutrients that are essential in goat nutrition are water, energy, protein, minerals and vitamins.

What is the most important nutrient for goats? ›

Essential macrominerals (required at 0.1% or more in diet) for sheep and goats are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfur, and magnesium. Essential microminerals (required in parts per million) include manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, iodine, selenium, and molybdenum.

What is an appropriate protein percentage for goats? ›

The minimum crude protein content of a goat s diet is thought to be 7-8%. Below that, rumen bacteria suffer and so does performance of the goat.

What are nutrient requirements? ›

Nutrient requirements define the specific nutrients and amounts that must be included in complete and balanced diets for healthy animals. Recommendations for the nutrient requirements of cats and dogs were first published in the 1970's, and these have been updated and added to over recent years.

What are the feeding management of goat? ›

Feeding management of goats
Age of kidsDam'smilk or cow milk (ml)Forage, green/day (gm)
4-14days350 ml, 3 feedings-
15-30 days350 ml, 3 feedingsA little
31-60 days400 ml, 2 feedingsFree choice
61-90 days200 ml, 2 feedingsFree choice
1 more row

How much food does a goat eat per day? ›

Each goat needs about two to four pounds of hay per day (3-4% of body weight in pounds), which can be fed free choice or twice a day. If good range isn't available, dry grass forage of a horse quality is acceptable. Goats require additional hay, which is roughage, for their rumen to function properly.

What are the nutritional requirements for ruminant animal? ›

Ruminant animals are relatively unique in the animal kingdom. They have only five (5) key nutrient requirements: namely, crude protein, energy (in the form of fiber), fat and water-soluble vitamins and minerals.

How many kg does a goat eat per day? ›

Hay or roughage should form the basis of the diet – adult goats will usually eat at least 1 to 2 kg (2.2lbs to 4.4lbs) of hay daily (more if other feedstuffs are not available) but milkers will often need nearer 3.5 kg of hay per day.

What is the best goat mineral? ›

In browsing or grain-fed goats, the addition of a calcium supplement (dicalcium phosphate, limestone, etc.) to the feed or to a salt or trace mineral-salt mixture usually meets calcium requirements. Legumes (e.g., clover, alfalfa, kudzu) are also good sources of calcium.

What grain is best for goats? ›

One cup of grain is sufficient for adult goats, while ½ cup of grain is ideal for kids (baby goats). However, pregnant goats and those kept for milking can eat up to 2 cups a day, as they need the extra protein and fat. The best type of grain to feed goats is wheat, barley, and oats.

Which calcium is best for goat? ›

In browsing or grain-fed goats, the addition of a calcium supplement (dicalcium phosphate, limestone, etc) to the feed or to a salt or trace mineral–salt mixture usually meets calcium requirements. Legumes (eg, clover, alfalfa, kudzu) are also good sources of calcium.

How much grain should a goat eat per day? ›

Feed grain to your goats sparingly; adults will only need 1 ½ pound a day as an absolute maximum. Kids require significantly less - around ½ a cup will do the trick. Most goats gain the majority of nutrition from foraging, where adequate pasture is available.

Can you feed goats too much protein? ›

Too much protein can also result in a reduction in weight gain. When a goat is fed a protein level higher than its body requires, then energy that is used to produce muscle instead must be utilized to remove excess protein. The result can be a reduced rate of gain along with higher-than-necessary feed costs.

What is a good source of phosphorus for goats? ›

Oilseed meals are a good source of phosphorus. A requirement for goats of no less than 3.0 g P/kg Dry Matter in the daily feed ration is advised to avoid nutritional deficiencies. A content of 2.0 P/kg Dry Matter leads to serious reproductive, growth and milk production failures (Haenlain and Anke, 2011).

What are daily nutritional requirements? ›

The average person needs about 2,000 calories every day to maintain their weight, but the amount will depend on their age, sex, and physical activity level.
...
About calories.
PersonCalorie requirements
Active people: 30 years and over2,000–3,000
Sedentary people: 30 years and over1,600–2,400
8 more rows

Why is nutritional requirement important? ›

Inadequate energy intake can lead to growth faltering, catabolism of body tissues, and inability to provide adequate energy substrate. Excess energy intakes can increase the risk for obesity. Adequacy of energy intake in adults is associated with maintenance of a healthy weight.

What are the nutritional requirements of animals? ›

Most animals obtain their nutrients by the consumption of other organisms. At the cellular level, the biological molecules necessary for animal function are amino acids, lipid molecules, nucleotides, and simple sugars. However, the food consumed consists of protein, fat, and complex carbohydrates.

How do you prepare goat feed? ›

Composition and Preparation of Feed on Goat Farm - YouTube

What is the feeding management of goat and sheep? ›

So during this period animals should be allowed in very good quality pasture 4-5 hours per day. In addition to grazing, animals should be fed with concentrate mixture @ 250 –350 g/animal/day. Their ration should be supplemented with available green fodder at the rate of 7 kg per head per day.

How do you mix goat feed? ›

Mixing goat feed with recipe - YouTube

How much water does a goat drink per day? ›

Goats need two to three gallons of water daily. However, goats may get by on only about a half gallon a day or less while grazing lush green grass. In addition, a lactating doe requires more than two to three gallons of water, depending on how much she is getting from grass and how much milk she is producing.

Do goats need food at night? ›

Goats will need hay at night especially during cold nights because they usually munch on their hay to generate their own heat and stay warm. They also need constant access to hay during rainy nights.

What is sweet feed for goats? ›

Sweet feed is a mix of whole grains or pelleted food tossed with molasses. The molasses makes the grain very palatable to goats; in fact, they can become obsessed with it!

What is the importance of nutrition in ruminant? ›

Being the major feed for ruminants, forage plays a key role in ruminant nutrition, animal health and ultimately the quality of the animal products. Nutrients in forage, including energy, protein, water, minerals and vitamins, are the foundation for all rationing systems to optimize productivity (Lee et al., 2018).

Why is nutrient important in ruminant production? ›

The quantity and availability of nutrients in feeds ingested by ruminants directly determines their performance and the efficiency of utilization of such nutrients determines the profitability and environmental impact of the ruminant livestock production enterprise.

How do you calculate requirement of feed for milk production? ›

An efficient milking cow needs a daily dry matter intake equivalent to at least 3% of its body weight. Example: a 600 kg cow needs 600 kg × 3% = 18 kg DM/day. Higher producing cows will eat more than 4% of their body weight as dry matter.

How long can goats go without water? ›

A very rough rule of thumb: A living creature can live without air for about three minutes, survive without water for perhaps three days, and may be able to live without food for up to three weeks.

How long is a goat pregnant for? ›

Gestation length in goats is 145–155 days (average 150 days) and can be affected by breed, litter weight, environment, and parity. Generally, first-kidding does have one or two kids, and in subsequent kiddings, triplets and quadruplets are not uncommon.

What are the symptoms of calcium deficiency in goats? ›

The main deficiency symptoms are seen in the skeletal system. Bones can become soft and weak and may be deformed, resulting in lameness. This condition is called rickets, or osteomalacia.

What does vitamin D do for goats? ›

Vitamin D is needed for proper bone growth and health. Ricketts in goat kids (weak, small bones resulting in a stunted, hunchback look) and brittle bones in adults are possible signs that vitamin D is lacking (deficient) in the diet.

What mineral supplements do goats need? ›

There are nine types of minerals goats require to maintain health; selenium, zinc, copper, calcium, phosphorus, iodine, iron, manganese, and sodium. A mistake many novice farmers make is feeding their herds large amounts of grain-based goat feeds.

What are signs of copper deficiency in goats? ›

The earliest signs of copper deficiency are a faded coat, fish tail (balding tail tip), and losing hair on the face, especially around the eyes or the bridge of the nose. A black goat turns a rusty color; red goats turn gold; gold goats turn cream; and cream goats turn white.

What vegetables can goats eat? ›

Goats also enjoy munching on healthy fruits and vegetables such as watermelon, pears, peaches, bananas, grapes, carrots, lettuce, celery, pumpkin, squash, and spinach. Before feeding fruits and veggies, make sure that all pieces are small enough to prevent choking.

What is the best feed for male goats? ›

Quality grass hay is good for all goats, for at least part of their diets. It's really the only hay that bucks, wethers, and dry does should have, and it can be fed free choice.

Is corn good for goats? ›

Corn is safe for goats in small amounts. While corn is relatively low in protein (8% CP), it does contain a certain amount of calcium, which, in excess, can contribute to the onset of urinary calculi in bucks.

How do you treat calcium deficiency in goats? ›

Symptoms of goat milk fever and what to do

Your veterinarian will need to administer calcium gluconate directly into the bloodstream to restore the normal concentrations of blood calcium and re-establish your goat's health.

How do you give goat calcium? ›

Goats Prefer™ Calcium Drench is a vitamin and mineral supplement goats. Use before and after kidding to provide calcium, propylene glycol, and B vitamins to help maintain normal calcium levels and appetite following kidding. Ready to use liquid, administer as an oral drench.

What percentage of carbohydrates do goats need? ›

Carbohydrates (sugars and starches are readily digestible; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are poorly digested) make up 3/4 of plant dry weight. They are the largest part of the goats food supply. During gestation, intake of carbohydrates increases by 10% and with lactation, intake goes to 70% over maintenance.

What happens when a goat eats too much grain? ›

Grain overload is also known as acidosis or grain poisoning. It occurs when cattle, sheep or goats eat large amounts of grain, and can result in acidosis, slowing of the gut, dehydration and often death. Veterinary treatment is required for severe cases.

What should you not feed goats? ›

But, just like other animals, goats shouldn't consume things like garlic, onion, chocolate or any source of caffeine, to name a few. Although most goats wouldn't eat leftover meat scraps, they shouldn't be offered them either. Citrus fruits should also be avoided, as they can really upset the rumen.

How much grain should I feed my meat goat? ›

Goats typically need to eat 7 lbs of grain for every 1 lb of gain. Your goat will need to eat between 1.75 and 2 lbs of grain to ensure a gain of 1/4 lb per day. Always provide plenty of clean water and have free choice loose salt, and loose trace minerals available at all times.

What are the nutrients required by goat and their role? ›

Meat goats require nutrients for body maintenance, growth, reproduction, pregnancy, and production of products such as meat, milk and hair. The groups of nutrients that are essential in goat nutrition are water, energy, protein, minerals and vitamins.

What is the mode of nutrition of goat? ›

Goats have the ability to forage on anything from fresh grass to weeds and shrubs.

What causes low protein in goats? ›

Tag: hypoproteinemia

Edema can be caused by several factors, including hypoproteinemia or low blood protein in the animal, which is commonly related to the large stomach worm (barber pole worm, Haemonchus contortus); malnutrition and stress of pregnancy; lactation; and adverse weather conditions.

What is the most important nutrient for a goat? ›

Essential macrominerals (required at 0.1% or more in diet) for sheep and goats are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfur, and magnesium. Essential microminerals (required in parts per million) include manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, iodine, selenium, and molybdenum.

What protein do goats need? ›

The most common and economical sources of protein for goats in the Southern US are the oilseed meals: cottonseed, soybean, peanut and sunflower. The cereal grains and forages also contain protein (Table 1).

How much protein does a goat need daily? ›

Feed intake and dietary digestibility are reduced if dietary crude protein is <6%, further compounding an energy-protein deficiency; thus, for maintenance of mature, healthy animals, the diet should have a minimum of 7% crude protein. Dietary crude protein requirements are higher for growth, gestation, and lactation.

What do you feed a goat daily? ›

Each goat needs about two to four pounds of hay per day (3-4% of body weight in pounds), which can be fed free choice or twice a day. If good range isn't available, dry grass forage of a horse quality is acceptable. Goats require additional hay, which is roughage, for their rumen to function properly.

What percentage of carbohydrates do goats need? ›

Carbohydrates (sugars and starches are readily digestible; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are poorly digested) make up 3/4 of plant dry weight. They are the largest part of the goats food supply. During gestation, intake of carbohydrates increases by 10% and with lactation, intake goes to 70% over maintenance.

What are the nutritional requirements for ruminant animal? ›

Ruminant animals are relatively unique in the animal kingdom. They have only five (5) key nutrient requirements: namely, crude protein, energy (in the form of fiber), fat and water-soluble vitamins and minerals.

How much grain should a goat eat per day? ›

Feed grain to your goats sparingly; adults will only need 1 ½ pound a day as an absolute maximum. Kids require significantly less - around ½ a cup will do the trick. Most goats gain the majority of nutrition from foraging, where adequate pasture is available.

What is sweet feed for goats? ›

Sweet feed is a mix of whole grains or pelleted food tossed with molasses. The molasses makes the grain very palatable to goats; in fact, they can become obsessed with it!

What food can goats not eat? ›

But, just like other animals, goats shouldn't consume things like garlic, onion, chocolate or any source of caffeine, to name a few. Although most goats wouldn't eat leftover meat scraps, they shouldn't be offered them either. Citrus fruits should also be avoided, as they can really upset the rumen.

What grain is best for goats? ›

One cup of grain is sufficient for adult goats, while ½ cup of grain is ideal for kids (baby goats). However, pregnant goats and those kept for milking can eat up to 2 cups a day, as they need the extra protein and fat. The best type of grain to feed goats is wheat, barley, and oats.

How many kg does a goat eat per day? ›

Hay or roughage should form the basis of the diet – adult goats will usually eat at least 1 to 2 kg (2.2lbs to 4.4lbs) of hay daily (more if other feedstuffs are not available) but milkers will often need nearer 3.5 kg of hay per day.

What is the best goat mineral? ›

In browsing or grain-fed goats, the addition of a calcium supplement (dicalcium phosphate, limestone, etc.) to the feed or to a salt or trace mineral-salt mixture usually meets calcium requirements. Legumes (e.g., clover, alfalfa, kudzu) are also good sources of calcium.

What are the symptoms of calcium deficiency in goats? ›

The main deficiency symptoms are seen in the skeletal system. Bones can become soft and weak and may be deformed, resulting in lameness. This condition is called rickets, or osteomalacia.

What is the importance of nutrition in ruminant? ›

Being the major feed for ruminants, forage plays a key role in ruminant nutrition, animal health and ultimately the quality of the animal products. Nutrients in forage, including energy, protein, water, minerals and vitamins, are the foundation for all rationing systems to optimize productivity (Lee et al., 2018).

Why is nutrient important in ruminant production? ›

The quantity and availability of nutrients in feeds ingested by ruminants directly determines their performance and the efficiency of utilization of such nutrients determines the profitability and environmental impact of the ruminant livestock production enterprise.

What happens when a goat eats too much grain? ›

Grain overload is also known as acidosis or grain poisoning. It occurs when cattle, sheep or goats eat large amounts of grain, and can result in acidosis, slowing of the gut, dehydration and often death. Veterinary treatment is required for severe cases.

What is goat starter feed? ›

Homestead® 18% Goat Starter/Grower is a palatable, nutrient dense goat starter/grower formulated specifically to be fed to one-week to sixteen-week-old kids. Homestead Goat Starter/Grower contains ammonium chloride to help reduce instances of urinary calculi (water belly).

How much water does a goat drink per day? ›

Goats need two to three gallons of water daily. However, goats may get by on only about a half gallon a day or less while grazing lush green grass. In addition, a lactating doe requires more than two to three gallons of water, depending on how much she is getting from grass and how much milk she is producing.

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