Overview: Parvovirus B19 Antibodies, IgG and IgM, Serum (2022)

Useful For

Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Serologic detection of recent or past parvovirus B19 infection

Highlights

This assay may be used to determine the serostatus of patients at risk for infection with parvovirus B19.

Results may be used, alongside clinical evaluation and other laboratory findings, to determine if the patient has recent or past infection with parvovirus B19.

Profile Information

A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
PARVG Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG, S No Yes
PARVM Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgM, S No Yes
PARVN Parvovirus B19 Ab Interpretation No Yes

Method Name

A short description of the method used to perform the test

Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)

NY State Available

Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name

Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG and IgM, S

Aliases

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

B19

Erythrovirus B19

Fifth Disease

Human Parvovirus

Slapped Cheek disease

Specimen Type

(Video) Antibody Testing: IgG and IgM explained

Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Ordering Guidance

This test is intended for patients with at least 7 days of symptoms or asymptomatic individuals with recent exposure to parvovirus B19.

For patients with acute, symptomatic presentation, order either PARVP / Parvovirus B19, Molecular Detection, PCR, Plasma or PARVO / Parvovirus B19, Molecular Detection, PCR, Varies.

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send Infectious Disease Serology Test Request (T916) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume

Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.5 mL

Reject Due To

Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus Reject
Heat-inactivated specimen Reject

Specimen Stability Information

Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 14 days

Useful For

Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Serologic detection of recent or past parvovirus B19 infection

Clinical Information

Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

(Video) IgG Test / IgM Positive Means / IgG and IgM Positive Means / IgG antibody IgG IgM Test,Igm Igg test

Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease (ie, erythema infectiosum, slapped cheek syndrome), which usually produces a mild illness characterized by an intensive erythematous maculopapular facial rash. Most outbreaks of parvovirus infection are acquired by direct contact with respiratory secretions and primarily occur in the spring. Close contact between individuals is responsible for infection in schools, day care centers, and hospitals. The virus has also been associated with fetal damage (hydrops fetalis), aplastic crisis, and arthralgia. Infection during pregnancy presents the risk of transmission to the fetus that may cause intrauterine death. The rate of fetal death following maternal infection ranges between 1% and 9%.

Parvovirus B19 preferentially replicates in erythroid progenitor cells.(1) Infection with parvovirus B19 occurs early in life, and the virus is transmitted by respiratory secretion and occasionally by blood products. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies increases with age. The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to parvovirus is 2% to 9% of children under 5 years, 15% to 35% in children 5 to 18 years of age, and 30% to 60% in adults (19 years or older).

Most acute infections with parvovirus B19 are diagnosed in the laboratory by serologically detecting IgG and IgM class antibodies to the virus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing.

Reference Values

Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

IgG: Negative

IgM: Negative

Interpretation

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Parvovirus B19 IgM

Parvovirus B19 IgG

Interpretation

Negative

Negative

No antibody to Parvovirus B19 detected. Acute infection cannot be ruled out as antibody levels may be below the limit of detection. If clinically indicated, a second serum should be submitted in 14 to 21 days.

Negative

Positive

Results suggest past infection.

Equivocal

Positive or negative

Recommend follow-up testing in 10 to 14 days if clinically indicated.

Positive

Positive, negative or equivocal

Results suggest recent infection and should be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation.

The presence of IgM class antibodies suggests recent infection. The presence of IgG antibodies only is indicative of past exposure.

Both IgG and IgM may be present at or soon after onset of illness and reach peak titers within 30 days. Because IgG antibody may persist for years, diagnosis of acute infection is made by the detection of IgM antibodies.

Cautions

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Specimens collected prior to seroconversion may yield negative IgM or IgG antibody results, while specimens collected after IgM antibody levels have begun to decline may yield negative IgM antibody results. Follow-up testing of convalescent samples may be beneficial to establish infection status.

The continued presence or absence of antibodies cannot be used to determine the success or failure of therapy.

(Video) Part 2 Parvovirus B19 & Human Papilloma Virus

Test results of specimens from immunocompromised patients may be difficult to interpret.

Testing should not be performed as a screening procedure for the general population. Testing should only be done when clinical evidence suggests the diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated disease.

The performance of this test has not been established on neonates and immunocompromised patients.

Specimens containing antinuclear antibodies may produce equivocal or positive test results in the IgM assay.

Epstein-Barr virus-positive specimens may produce positive or equivocal test results in the IgM assay.

Assay performance characteristics have not been established for matrices other than serum.

Clinical Reference

Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Brown KE, Young NS: Parvovirus B19 in human disease. Ann Rev Med. 1997;48:59-67

2. Markenson GR, Yancey MK: Parvovirus B19 infections in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 1998;22(4):309-317

3. Summers J, Jones SE, Anderson MJ: Characterization of the genome of the agent of erythrocyte aplasia permits its classification as a human parvovirus. J Gen Virol. 1983;64;(Pt 11):2527-2532

4. Qui J, Soderlund-Venermo M, Young NS. Human Paravoviruses. Clin Microbiol. Rev. 2017 Jan;30(1):43-113. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00040-16

Method Description

Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Antibody to parvovirus B19 is detected by a sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of IgG or IgM class antibodies in serum or plasma (Biotrin). Specific parvovirus B19 antibodies in specimens bind to antigen-coated microtiter wells. Following a wash step, peroxidase-labeled rabbit-antihuman IgG is added that binds to parvovirus antibody. The antigen-antibody complex is detected by the addition of substrate, which turns blue in the presence of the enzyme peroxidase.(Anderson LJ, Tsou R, Parker RA, et al: Detection of antibodies and antigens of human parvovirus B19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1986;24[4]:522-526. Package insert: Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM Enzyme Immunoassay. DiaSorin, Biotrin; 10/2012)

PDF Report

Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed

Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available

The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time

Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location

(Video) Parvovirus B19 - Causes, Symptoms, Pathology, Diagnosis, Treatment #Parvovirus B19

Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees

Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification

Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86747 x 2

LOINC® Information

Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PARVS Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG and IgM, S 34950-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value

Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.

PARVG Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG, S 29660-8
PARVM Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgM, S 40658-7
PARVN Parvovirus B19 Ab Interpretation 58737-8

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files

Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports

Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports

International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

(Video) IgG, IgM Positive Means, Antibody test, IgG Test,IgM Test | Igg and Igm Positive means,antibody test

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports

FAQs

What do my parvovirus B19 test results mean? ›

Positive IgG results and negative IgM results indicate past infection (no risk to fetus). Positive IgG and IgM results indicate infection within the last 7-120 days (possible risk to fetus). Negative IgG results and positive IgM results indicate acute infection (higher risk to fetus).

How do you read parvo test results? ›

Results for Parvovirus IgG and IgM are reported as either 'Positive' or 'Negative'.
...
Results may be interpreted as follows:
  1. Positive IgG and negative IgM indicate past infection.
  2. Positive IgG and IgM indicate infection within the last 7-120 days.
  3. Negative IgG and positive IgM indicate acute/recent infection.

What is parvovirus B19 antibodies IgG IgM? ›

Clinical Significance

Parvovirus B19 Antibodies (IgG, IgM) - Parvovirus B19 is also known as Fifth Disease. It primarily affects children and causes a rash on the face, trunk, and limbs. Joint pain and swelling is more common in adults.

What does it mean to have parvovirus antibodies? ›

Parvovirus is usually diagnosed through a blood test for antibodies to the virus. Antibodies are cells that your immune system produces in response to an infection. If the blood test shows that you have antibodies, you are immune to the virus.

What does it mean if IgG is positive? ›

The presence of IgG suggests that the infection happened weeks to months in the past. It also suggests that you may no longer be infectious. IgG indicates that you may have some immunity to the virus, though you may not. How much it might protect you from getting sick with COVID-19 in the future is unknown.

What does it mean to be IgM positive? ›

IgM is usually the first antibody produced by the immune system when a virus attacks. A positive IgM test indicates that you may have been recently infected or vaccinated and your immune system has started responding to the vaccination or that your immune system has started responding to the virus.

What does high parvovirus IgG mean? ›

If only the IgG result is positive, there has been a parvovirus infection in the past, and the person is now protected against this virus. If both tests are negative, the person has never been infected with parvovirus B19 and is therefore not protected.

What is a positive parvovirus? ›

If you get positive results, that means you have parvovirus and the antibodies to fight it. If results turn out negative, you have not been exposed to the virus.

How long is IgM positive parvo? ›

Parvovirus B19 IgM usually appears within 2 to 3 days of acute infection and may persist up to 6 months.

What is parvovirus B19 IgG in adults? ›

Parvovirus B19 is the cause of erythema infectiosum, or Fifth's disease, in children. In adults, the clinical syndrome can include fever, rash, and symmetric peripheral arthropathy, and is generally self-limited. In patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia, transient aplastic crisis can occur.

How long does parvovirus B19 stay in your system? ›

Markers of Parvovirus B19 infection

They appear 10 to 14 days after the infection and can persist for up to 5 months but, in some patients, they can last even longer (Figure 2)25. Specific IgG antibodies are detectable about 15 days after infection, remain high for several months and persist long-term25.

What are the symptoms of parvovirus B19? ›

Common symptoms of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection include a mild nonspecific prodromal illness that may consist of fever (15-30% of patients), malaise, headache, myalgia, nausea, and rhinorrhea; typically beginning 5-7 days after initial infection.

What causes parvovirus B19 IgG? ›

Transmission. Parvovirus B19 spreads through respiratory secretions, such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus, when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Parvovirus B19 can also spread through blood or blood products. A pregnant woman who is infected with parvovirus B19 can pass the virus to her baby.

What does it mean if you have IgG and IgM antibodies? ›

-If the tests show you have both IgM and IgG, it suggests you are in the early recovery phase. -If the test shows IgG alone, it suggests you have had the infection and are at least 14 days from the beginning of the infection and are unlikely to be infectious.

What if IgG and IgM is positive? ›

The positive IgM plus negative IgG (IgM+ plus IgG-) results showed that 38% of those patients had a recent primary dengue infection, while the positive IgG plus either positive or negative IgM (IgG+ plus IgM+/-) results indicated that 62% had dengue for at least a second time (recent secondary infections).

What is the difference between IgM and IgG antibodies? ›

Both SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies may be detected around the same time after infection. However, while IgM is most useful for determining recent infection, it usually becomes undetectable weeks to months following infection; in contrast, IgG is usually detectable for longer periods.

What is the normal range for IgM? ›

Specific laboratory determinations

The manufacturer indicates the following reference intervals for healthy adults: IgA 70–400 mg/dl, IgG 700–1600 mg/dl and IgM 40–230 mg/dl [35].

What IgG means? ›

Immunoglobulin G: IgG is the most common type of antibody in your blood and other body fluids. These antibodies protect you against infection by "remembering" which germs you've been exposed to before.

What does IgG antibody do? ›

Immunoglobulin G (IgG): This is the most common antibody. It's in blood and other body fluids, and protects against bacterial and viral infections.

How do you treat parvovirus B19? ›

For an uncomplicated parvovirus infection, self-care treatment at home is generally sufficient. People with severe anemia may need to stay in the hospital and receive blood transfusions. Those with weakened immune systems may receive antibodies, via immune globulin injections, to treat the infection.

Can parvovirus be cured? ›

There is no cure for parvo. Your vet will offer your puppy supportive care over the course of the illness, treating symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration, and making sure that your puppy gets adequate nutrition.

How common is parvovirus B19? ›

Parvovirus B19 infection is extremely common. Seropositivity rates are 5-10% among young children (aged 2-5 years), increasing to 50% by age 15 years and 60% by age 30 years. A small percentage of adults acquire infection every year, resulting in an incidence of approximately 90% in adults older than 60 years.

What causes parvovirus in adults? ›

It spreads from person to person, just like a cold, often through breathing, coughing and saliva, so it can spread through close contact between people and hand-to-hand contact. Parvovirus infection can also spread through blood.

Is parvovirus harmful to humans? ›

Parvovirus B19 infects only humans. It most commonly causes fifth disease, a mild rash illness that usually affects children. But it can cause different signs and symptoms, depending on your age and overall health.

Who is at risk for parvovirus B19? ›

The highest risk of acute infection was observed in mothers of children aged 5 to 7 years. These women had a more than 4-fold increased risk of acute infection compared with the risk of mothers with a child younger than 2 years.

What does high parvovirus IgG mean? ›

If only the IgG result is positive, there has been a parvovirus infection in the past, and the person is now protected against this virus. If both tests are negative, the person has never been infected with parvovirus B19 and is therefore not protected.

What does it mean to test positive for parvovirus? ›

If you get positive results, that means you have parvovirus and the antibodies to fight it. If results turn out negative, you have not been exposed to the virus.

What is parvovirus B19 IgG in adults? ›

Parvovirus B19 is the cause of erythema infectiosum, or Fifth's disease, in children. In adults, the clinical syndrome can include fever, rash, and symmetric peripheral arthropathy, and is generally self-limited. In patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia, transient aplastic crisis can occur.

What is parvovirus B19 in adults? ›

Adults can get infected with parvovirus B19 resulting in fifth disease too. Less common symptoms of parvovirus B19 infection include painful or swollen joints (polyarthropathy syndrome), which is more common in adults, and severe anemia (a condition in which the body doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells).

Videos

1. Parvovirus B19
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2. Parvovirus B19 in pregnancy
(Shannon M. Clark, MD, MMS, FACOG)
3. प्रेगनेंसी में रूबेला वायरस क्या बच्चे पे असर करता है | Rubella In Pregnancy | Dr Supriya Puranik
(Dr Supriya Puranik IVF, Pune)
4. Parvovirus B19 Wikipedia Article Audio
(Wikipedia Audio)
5. Fetal Infections - CMV/Rubella/Parvo/Toxoplasmosis
(Priyata Lal)
6. Summary of Congenital Infections | Dr. Sandeep Sharma | General Pediatrics | YouTube Live
(PrepLadder NEET SS)

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