Seizures | Acute Management | ABCDE | Geeky Medics (2022)

This guide provides an overview of therecognitionandimmediatemanagementofseizures using anABCDEapproach.

TheABCDEapproach can be used to perform a systematic assessment of a critically unwell patient. It involves working through the following steps:

  • Airway
  • Breathing
  • Circulation
  • Disability
  • Exposure

Each stage of the ABCDE approach involvesclinicalassessment,investigationsandinterventions. Problems are addressed as they are identified and the patient is re-assessed regularly to monitor their response to treatment.

This guide has been created to assist students in preparing for emergencysimulationsessionsas part of their training,it is not intended to be relied upon for patient care.

You may also be interested in our overview of the ABCDE approach and other emergency management guides.

Tips before you begin

Generaltipsfor applying anABCDEapproachin an emergency setting include:

  • Treat all problemsas you discover them.
  • Re-assessregularly and after every intervention to monitor a patient’s response to treatment.
  • Make use of the team around you bydelegating taskswhere appropriate.
  • All critically unwell patients should havecontinuous monitoringequipment attached for accurateobservations.
  • Clearly communicate how often would you like the patient’s observations relayed to you by other staff members.
  • If you require senior input,call for help earlyusing an appropriateSBARR handoverstructure.
  • Review resultsas they become available(e.g.laboratory investigations).
  • Make use of your localguidelinesandalgorithmsin managing specific scenarios (e.g.acute asthma).
  • Anymedicationsorfluidswill need to beprescribedat the time (in some cases you may be able to delegate this to another member of staff).
  • Your assessment and management should bedocumentedclearly in the notes, however, this shouldnot delayinitial clinical assessment, investigations and interventions.

You might also be interested in our medical flashcard collection which contains over 1000 flashcards that cover key medical topics.

Initial steps

Acute scenarios typically begin with abriefhandoverfrom a member of thenursing staffincluding thepatient’s name,age,backgroundand thereasonthereviewhas been requested.

Introduction

Introduceyourselfto whoever has requested a review of the patient andlistencarefullyto their handover.

Interaction

Introduceyourselfto thepatientincluding yournameandrole.

Askhow the patient is feelingas this may provide some useful information about their currentsymptoms.

Preparation

Make sure thepatient’snotes,observationchartandprescriptionchartare easily accessible.

Ask for anotherclinicalmemberofstafftoassistyou if possible.

If the patient isunconsciousorunresponsive, start thebasic life support(BLS)algorithmas per resuscitation guidelines.

Airway

Clinical assessment

Can the patient talk?

Yes: if the patient can talk, their airway is patent and you can move on to the assessment of breathing.

No:

  • Look for signs ofairwaycompromise: these include cyanosis, see-saw breathing, use of accessory muscles, diminished breath sounds and added sounds.
  • Open the mouthandinspect: look for anything obstructing the airway such as secretions or a foreign object.

Interventions

Regardless of the underlying cause of airway obstruction, seekimmediate expert supportfrom an anaesthetist and the emergency medical team (often referred to as the ‘crash team’). In the meantime, you can perform some basic airway manoeuvres to help maintain the airway whilst awaiting senior input.

Head-tilt chin-lift manoeuvre

Open the patient’s airwayusing ahead-tiltchin-lift manoeuvre:

1.Place one hand on the patient’s forehead and the other under the chin.

2.Tilt the forehead back whilst lifting the chin forwards to extend the neck.

(Video) Epilepsy & Seizure Disorder | Clinical Presentation

3.Inspect theairwayfor obviousobstruction. If an obstruction is visible within the airway, use afingersweeporsuctionto remove it.

Jaw thrust

If the patient is suspected to have sufferedsignificanttraumawith potential spinal involvement, perform ajaw-thrustrather than a head-tilt chin-lift manoeuvre:

1.Identify the angle of the mandible.

2.With your index and other fingers placed behind the angle of the mandible, apply steady upwards and forward pressure to lift the mandible.

3.Using your thumbs, slightly open the mouth by downward displacement of the chin.

Oropharyngeal airway (Guedel)

Airway adjuncts are often helpful and in some cases essential to maintain a patient’s airway. They should be used in conjunction with the maneuvres mentioned above as the position of the head and neck need to be maintained to keep the airway aligned.

An oropharyngeal airway is a curved plastic tube with a flange on one end that sits between the tongue and hard palate to relieve soft palate obstruction. It should only be inserted in unconscious patients as it is otherwise poorly tolerated and may induce gagging and aspiration.

Toinsertanoropharyngealairway:

1.Open the patient’s mouth to ensure there is no foreign material that may be pushed into the larynx. If foreign material is present, attempt removal using suction.

2.Insert the oropharyngeal airway in the upside-down position until you reach the junction of the hard and soft palate, at which point you should rotate it 180°. The reason for inserting the airway upside down initially is to reduce the risk of pushing the tongue backwards and worsening airway obstruction.

3.Advance the airway until it lies within the pharynx.

4.Maintain head-tilt chin-lift or jaw thrust and assess the patency of the patient’s airway by looking, listening and feeling for signs of breathing.

Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA)

A nasopharyngeal airway is a soft plastic tube with a bevel at one end and a flange at the other. NPAs are typically better tolerated in patients who are partly or fully conscious compared to oropharyngeal airways. NPAs should not be used in patients who may have sustained a skull base fracture, due to the small but life-threatening risk of entering the cranial vault with the NPA.

To insert a nasopharyngeal airway:

1.Check the patency of the patient’s right nostril and if required (depending on the model of NPA) insert a safety pin through the flange of the NPA.

2.Lubricate the NPA.

3.Insert the airway bevel-end first, vertically along the floor of the nose with a slight twisting action.

4.If any obstruction is encountered, remove the tube and try the left nostril.

Other interventions

If the patient has clinical signs ofanaphylaxis(e.g. angioedema, rash) commence appropriate treatment as discussed in ouranaphylaxis guide.

CPR

If the patientloses consciousnessand there areno signs of lifeon assessment, put out acrash callandcommence CPR.

Re-assessment

Make sure tore-assessthe patient after anyintervention.

(Video) Epilepsy: Types of seizures, Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Causes and Treatments, Animation.

Breathing

Clinical assessment

Observations

Review the patient’srespiratoryrate:

  • Anormalrespiratory rate is between12-20 breaths per minute.
  • Bradypnoea may be present secondary to the use of anticonvulsant agents (e.g. benzodiazipines).

Review the patient’soxygen saturation(SpO2):

  • Anormal SpO2rangeis94-98%in healthy individuals and88-92%in patients withCOPDwho are at high-risk ofCO2retention.
  • Hypoxaemia may occur in the context of seizures due to airway obstruction (e.g. secretions, aspiration of vomit).

Inspection

Inspect the patientfrom the end of the bed:

  • Cyanosis:bluish discolouration of the skin due to poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood.

Auscultation

Auscultate the chest to screen for evidence of other respiratory pathology (e.g. coarse crackles may be present if the patient has developed aspiration pneumonia).

Investigations and procedures

Arterial blood gas

Take anABGifindicated(e.g. low SpO2) to quantify the degree of any hypoxia and to quickly assess for other metabolic abnormalities (e.g. raised lactate, metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormality).

Chest X-ray

A chest X-ray may be indicated if abnormalities are noted on auscultation (e.g. reduced air entry, coarse crackles) to screen for evidence of aspiration pneumonia. A chest X-ray should not delay the emergency management of opioid overdose.

See ourCXR interpretation guidefor more details.

Interventions

Oxygen

Administer oxygen to all critically unwell patients during yourinitialassessment. This typically involves the use of anon-rebreathe maskwith an oxygen flow rate of15L. If the patient has COPD and a history of CO2retention you should switch to aventuri maskas soon as possible andtitrate oxygen appropriately.

If the patient is conscious, sit themuprightas this can also help with oxygenation.

CPR

If the patient loses consciousness and there are no signs of life on assessment, put out a crash call and commence CPR.

Re-assessment

Make sure to re-assess the patient after any intervention.

Circulation

Clinical assessment

Blood pressure and pulse

Assess the patient’s pulse and blood pressure:

  • A patient’s pulse may be fast and irregular in the context of atrial fibrillation which has resulted in a stroke.
  • Hypotension can sometimes precipitate seizures due to cerebral hypoperfusion.
  • The presence of hypertension in the context of seizure may suggest an underlying diagnosis of stroke or eclampsia.

Fluid balance assessment

Calculate the patient’s fluid balance:

  • Calculate the patient’s current fluid balance using their fluid balance chart (e.g. oral fluids, intravenous fluids, urine output, drain output, stool output, vomiting) to inform resuscitation efforts.
  • Reduced urine output (oliguria) is typically defined as less than 0.5ml/kg/hour in an adult.

Investigations and procedures

Intravenous cannulation

Insert at least onewide-bore intravenous cannula(14G or 16G) and take blood tests as discussed below.

See ourintravenous cannulation guidefor more details.

Blood tests

Collectblood testsafter cannulating the patient including:

  • FBC: to screen for anaemia and signs of infection.
  • U&Es, Bone profile, Magnesium: to assess renal function and screen for electrolyte abnormalities which may have precipitated a seizure (e.g. hyponatraemia).
  • CRP: to screen for evidence of infection.
  • Lactate: typically raised in the context of tonic-clonic seizures.
  • Coagulation studies: to screen for coagulopathy (e.g. intracerebral haemorrhage).
  • Toxicology screen: to screen for recreational drugs which may have precipitated the seizure.
  • Anticonvulsant drug levels: if the patient is known to have epilepsy and is already on treatment, it can be useful to assess treatment levels at the time of seizure to determine if they were therapeutic.
  • Blood cultures: if there are concerns about infection as an underlying cause for seizures (e.g. pyrexial) consider taking blood cultures.

Interventions

Intravenous fluids

Hypovolaemic patients requirefluidresuscitation:

  • Administer a 500ml bolus Hartmann’s solution or 0.9% sodium chloride (warmed if available) over 15 mins.
  • Administer 250ml boluses in patients at increased risk of fluid overload (e.g. heart failure).

After each fluid bolus,reassessfor clinical evidence of fluid overload (e.g. auscultation of the lungs, assessment of JVP).

Repeat administrationof fluid boluses up tofour times(e.g. 2000ml or 1000ml in patients at increased risk of fluid overload), reassessing the patient each time.

Seek senior input if the patient has a negative response (e.g. increased chest crackles) or if the patient isn’t responding adequately to repeated boluses (i.e. persistent hypotension).

See ourfluid prescribing guidefor more details onresuscitation fluids.

(Video) RC (UK) ABCDE assessment demo

CPR

If the patient loses consciousness and there are no signs of life on assessment, put out a crash call and commence CPR.

Re-assessment

Make sure to re-assess the patient after any intervention.

Disability

Clinical assessment

Consciousness

In the context of a generalised seizure, a patient’s consciousness level will be reduced.

Assess the patient’s level of consciousness using the AVPU scale:

  • Alert: the patient is fully alert, although not necessarily orientated.
  • Verbal: the patient makes some kind of response when you talk to them (e.g. words, grunt).
  • Pain: the patient responds to a painful stimulus (e.g. supraorbital pressure).
  • Unresponsive: the patient does not show evidence of any eye, voice or motor responses to pain.

If a more detailed assessment of the patient’s level of consciousness is required, use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS).

Pupils

Assess the patient’s pupils:

  • Inspect the size and symmetry of the patient’s pupils: abnormalities may indicate intoxication or intracerebral pathology.
  • Assess direct and consensual pupillary responses: fixed and dilated pupils may indicate significant intracerebral pathology.

Drug chart review

Review the patient’s drug chart for medications which may cause neurological abnormalitiesor reduce the seizure threshold (e.g. analgesics, sedatives, anxiolytics).

Investigations

Blood glucose and ketones

Measure the patient’s capillary blood glucose level to screen for causes of a reduced level of consciousness or precipitants for seizures (e.g. hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia).

A blood glucose level may already be available from earlier investigations (e.g. ABG, venepuncture).

Thenormalreference rangefor fasting plasma glucose is4.0 – 5.8 mmol/l.

Hypoglycaemiais defined as a plasma glucose ofless than3.0 mmol/l. Inhospitalised patients, a blood glucose≤4.0 mmol/Lshould be treated if the patient issymptomatic.

If the blood glucose is elevated, check ketone levels which if also elevated may suggest a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

See our blood glucose measurement, hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis guides for more details.

Imaging

Request a CT head if intracranial pathology is suspected after discussion with a senior.

See our guide on interpreting aCT head for more details.

Interventions

Maintain the airway

Alert a senior immediately if you have any concerns about the consciousness level of a patient. A GCS of 8 or below warrants urgent expert help from an anaesthetist. In the meantime, you should re-assess and maintain the patient’s airway as explained in the airway section of this guide.

Anticonvulsant treatment²

First-line treatment for seizures involves the use of benzodiazepines such as:

  • Lorazepam (IV) is often used as first-line therapy (usually a 4 mg bolus in adults, repeated once after 10−20 minutes if the seizure continues).²
  • Dose reductions are often required for elderly patients.
  • Failure to respond to first-line treatment requires input from critical care.

Second-line treatments for seizures may include:

  • Phenytoin infusion (requires BP and ECG monitoring)
  • Dexamethasone (if vasculitis or cerebral oedemais suspected as the underlying aetiology)

Glucose and thiamine

Other treatments to consider in the context of seizure include:

  • Intravenous glucose (50 ml of 50% solution)
  • Intravenous thiamine (250 mg) as high potency intravenous Pabrinex if there is a history of alcohol abuse or impaired nutrition (Wernicke’s encephalopathy).

CPR

If the patient loses consciousness and there are no signs of life on assessment, put out a crash call and commence CPR.

Re-assessment

Make sure to re-assess the patient after any intervention.

(Video) Management of Seizures in Adults | Details

Exposure

It may be necessary to expose the patient during your assessment: remember to prioritise patient dignity and conservation of body heat.

Clinical assessment

Inspection

Inspect the patient and their surroundings for relevant findings such as:

  • Empty mediation packaging (e.g. overdose)
  • Rash (e.g. meningococcal sepsis)
  • Infected wounds (e.g. sepsis)
  • Trauma (e.g. fractures, head injuries, skin lacerations)

Temperature

Assess the patient’s temperature:

  • A normal temperature is between 36.0°c – 37.9°c
  • Pyrexia may indicate underlying infection (e.g. encephalitis, cerebral abscess, meningitis).
  • Pyrexia can also be the primary cause of a seizure (i.e. febrile convulsion) however, this is rare in adults.

CPR

If the patient loses consciousness and there are no signs of life on assessment, put out a crash call and commence CPR.

Re-assessment

Make sure to re-assess the patient after any intervention.

Reassess ABCDE

Re-assessthe patient using theABCDE approachto identify any changes in their clinical condition and assess the effectiveness of your previous interventions.

Deteriorationshould be recognised quickly and acted upon immediately.

Seek senior helpif the patient shows no signs of improvement or if you have any concerns.

Support

You should have another member of the clinical team aiding you in your ABCDE assessment, such a nurse, who can perform observations, take samples to the lab and catheterise if appropriate.

You may need further help or advice from a senior staff member and you shouldnot delay seeking help if you have concerns about your patient.

Use an effectiveSBARR handoverto communicate the key information effectively to other medical staff.

Next steps

Well done, you’ve now stabilised the patient and they’re doing much better. There are just a few more things to do…

Take a history

Revisit history taking to explore relevant medical history. If the patient is confused you might be able to get a collateral history from staff or family members as appropriate.

See ourhistory taking guidesfor more details.

Review

Review thepatient’s notes,chartsandrecent investigation results.

Review the patient’scurrent medicationsand check any regular medications areprescribed appropriately.

Document

Clearlydocument your ABCDE assessment, including history, examination, observations, investigations, interventions, and the patient’s response.

See ourdocumentation guidesfor more details.

Discuss

Discuss the patient’s current clinical condition with aseniorclinicianusing anSBARRstyle handover.

Questionswhich may need to be considered include:

(Video) Neurology - Topic 16 - Epilepsy patient

  • Are any further assessments or interventions required?
  • Does the patient need a referral toHDU/ICU?
  • Does the patient need reviewing by a specialist?
  • Should any changes be made to the current management of their underlying condition(s)?

Handover

The next team of doctors on shift should bemade awareof any patient in their department who hasrecently deteriorated.

References

  1. NICE. Treating ongoing generalised tonic-clonic seizures (convulsive status epilepticus) in hospital. 2016. Available from: [LINK].
  2. NICE.Epilepsies: diagnosis and management. NICE guidance (CG137) –Published date:

FAQs

Which is the correct management for a seizure? ›

Loosen any tight clothing or restraints. Place something soft under their head. Stay with the person and reassure them. Do not put anything in their mouth and do not restrain them.

What are 4 things you should do when someone is having a seizure? ›

cushion their head if they're on the ground. loosen any tight clothing around their neck, such as a collar or tie, to aid breathing. turn them on to their side after their convulsions stop – read more about the recovery position. stay with them and talk to them calmly until they recover.

What should not be done during management of a seizure? ›

Do not hold the person down or try to stop his or her movements. Do not put anything in the person's mouth. This can injure teeth or the jaw. A person having a seizure cannot swallow his or her tongue.

What are 2 important pieces of information you should note when recording a seizure? ›

During the seizure

Was there any change in muscle tone (did they become stiff or floppy)? Did they fall down and, if so, forwards or backwards? Did they lose awareness, appear dazed or confused or lose consciousness? Was there any change in their breathing pattern?

What medication stops a seizure immediately? ›

The names of benzodiazepines that are most commonly used as rescue medications include: diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), and midazolam (Versed®).

What to do if a person has seizure? ›

First Aid
  1. Keep other people out of the way.
  2. Clear hard or sharp objects away from the person.
  3. Don't try to hold them down or stop the movements.
  4. Place them on their side, to help keep their airway clear.
  5. Look at your watch at the start of the seizure, to time its length.
  6. Don't put anything in their mouth.
28 Apr 2021

How long can a seizure last before brain damage? ›

A seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes, or having more than 1 seizure within a 5 minutes period, without returning to a normal level of consciousness between episodes is called status epilepticus. This is a medical emergency that may lead to permanent brain damage or death.

What triggers a seizure? ›

Fever, the physical stress of being sick, and dehydration (from not drinking or eating normally, or from vomiting) can all bring on seizures. It can also be hard to get a good night's sleep while sick, and lack of sleep can be a trigger. Plus, some of the medications used to treat these ailments may be triggers.

Should you let a person sleep after a seizure? ›

Yes, let him sleep. When he has the seizure make sure he is on the floor where he will not injury himself. If he has been sick and has a lot of mucus make sure he is on his side so that the mucus and saliva does not choke him. Also time the seizure, anything over five minutes call the emt.

Can a doctor tell if you've had a seizure? ›

Electroencephalogram (EEG) – Using electrodes attached to your head, your doctors can measure the electrical activity in your brain. This helps to look for patterns to determine if and when another seizure might occur, and it can also help them rule out other possibilities.

Do you apply oxygen during a seizure? ›

Administer oxygen via non-rebreather mask at 12-15 liters per minute to any patient who is actively seizing or is postictal, regardless of their pulse-ox reading, to help with the increased metabolic demands of the brain for oxygen [4].

Can you talk during a seizure? ›

Patients with simple partial seizures remain awake and aware throughout the seizure, and some patients can even talk during the episode.

Why is timing a seizure important? ›

the time of a seizure can help you recognize possible triggers. Talk to the family about what they use to track seizures and what to track. Find what works for your school and share information with the family and epilepsy care team.

What is the priority action for a client experiencing a seizure? ›

The priorities when caring for a patient who is seizing are to maintain a patent airway, protect the patient from injury, provide care during and following the seizure and documenting the event in the health record.

Should you suction during a seizure? ›

After the seizure, assess him for respirations and a pulse. If they're present and he's unresponsive, turn him onto his side to help keep his airway patent. If necessary, insert an oral airway and use suction to remove secretions. Take his vital signs.

Can you stop a seizure once it starts? ›

There isn't much you can do to stop a seizure once it starts. But you can help protect someone from harm during one. Some seizures are more dangerous than others, but most aren't an emergency. If you want to do something for the person, focus on keeping them safe.

Can seizures stop without medication? ›

Most people with well-controlled seizures would like to stop taking their seizure medicines. In some cases, this can be done with the supervision of your doctor. You have the best chance of remaining seizure-free without medication if: You had few seizures before you started taking seizure medicine.

What drugs should epileptics avoid? ›

Tramadol or Ultram - a pain reliever commonly prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain. Oral contraceptives - which may reduce the effectiveness of your seizure medication or your seizure medication may reduce the effectiveness of your oral contraceptive. Certain antibiotics.

What happens to your brain when you have a seizure? ›

A seizure occurs when one or more parts of the brain has a burst of abnormal electrical signals that interrupt normal brain signals. Anything that interrupts the normal connections between nerve cells in the brain can cause a seizure.

Do you foam at the mouth with a seizure? ›

A full-scale epileptic seizure involves violent jerking of the limbs, facial twitching, and foaming at the mouth due to saliva being blown through clenched teeth. The seizure may last for a few minutes and the patient may need several hours in which to recover.

How long do seizures usually last? ›

Most seizures last from 30 seconds to two minutes. A seizure that lasts longer than five minutes is a medical emergency. Seizures are more common than you might think.

Can you survive a seizure alone? ›

One of the dangers of seizures is experiencing them when no one else is around, which is a risk if you live alone. While it is possible to safely live alone if you have epilepsy, there are steps you can take to keep yourself safe when having a seizure alone.

Do seizures damage brain cells? ›

Prolonged seizures are clearly capable of injuring the brain. Isolated, brief seizures are likely to cause negative changes in brain function and possibly loss of specific brain cells.

Will I ever get memory back after seizure? ›

You may have difficulty remembering information straight after a seizure. This is sometimes called post-ictal confusion and it usually goes away once you have recovered. The length of time it takes for memory to return to normal can vary from person to person.

What smells can trigger seizures? ›

Internal use of EOs like sage, hyssop, rosemary, camphor, pennyroyal, eucalyptus, cedar, thuja, and fennel can cause epileptic seizures because they contain thujone, 1,8-cineole, camphor, or pinocamphone, which have been identified as convulsive agents.

Can anxiety cause seizures? ›

However, according to research on the experiences of people with seizures, stress and anxiety can trigger seizures, and current research often underestimates the role they may play. Lack of sleep is a common trigger for seizures, and this can often happen in people who are experiencing overwhelming stress.

What causes non epileptic seizures? ›

"PNES is not caused by abnormal brain electrical activity." PNES resemble, mimic or can appear outwardly like epileptic seizures, but their cause is psychological. PNES in most cases come from a psychological conflict or accompany an underlying psychiatric disorder. There is no known organic or physical cause for PNES.

What do hospitals do for seizures? ›

An EEG (electroencephalography) or a brain scan may be ordered. Antiseizure medicine may be used to treat a seizure lasting longer than five minutes or for multiple seizures. For a person with epilepsy, a Dignity Health neurologist will prescribe medications to prevent or reduce the frequency of seizures.

Why do seizures happen at night? ›

It's believed that sleep seizures are triggered by changes in the electrical activity in your brain during certain stages of sleeping and waking. Nighttime seizures occur most often in the early morning around 5 a.m. to 6 a.m. and occur least often shortly after falling asleep.

What jobs can't you do with epilepsy? ›

If you have seizures, you may not be able to do jobs that risk your safety or the safety of other people.
...
These include:
  • jobs that involve driving.
  • working at heights, near open water or fire.
  • working with unguarded machinery.
23 Feb 2020

What should nurse do during seizure? ›

Maintain in lying position, flat surface; turn head to side during seizure activity; loosen clothing from neck or chest and abdominal areas; suction as needed; supervise supplemental oxygen or bag ventilation as needed postictally. Improve self-esteem.

What is the most common seizure medication? ›

Below are 10 of the most common.
  1. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Lamotrigine (Lamictal) can be used for both focal onset and generalized seizures. ...
  2. Levetiracetam (Keppra, Spritam) ...
  3. Phenytoin (Dilantin) ...
  4. Zonisamide (Zonegran) ...
  5. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) ...
  6. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) ...
  7. Valproic acid derivatives. ...
  8. Topiramate (Topamax)
28 Apr 2022

Should you put oxygen on someone having a seizure? ›

Administer oxygen via non-rebreather mask at 12-15 liters per minute to any patient who is actively seizing or is postictal, regardless of their pulse-ox reading, to help with the increased metabolic demands of the brain for oxygen [4].

What are the seizure precautions? ›

Take frequent breaks and drink plenty of water. Wear protective clothing (elbow or knee pads, helmet, protective eyeglasses or goggles) whenever possible. Avoid busy streets when bike riding; ride on bike paths or side streets. Always wear a medical ID bracelet or necklace, or carry a medical ID card.

What is the priority action for a client experiencing a seizure? ›

The priorities when caring for a patient who is seizing are to maintain a patent airway, protect the patient from injury, provide care during and following the seizure and documenting the event in the health record.

What are seizure precautions in a hospital? ›

Seizure precautions are designed to protect the patient from injury and to reduce environmental stimuli that may trigger the onset of a seizure. Seizure precautions include patient bed in the lowest position with side rails padded, or if possible, the mattress should be placed on the floor.

Can seizures stop without medication? ›

Most people with well-controlled seizures would like to stop taking their seizure medicines. In some cases, this can be done with the supervision of your doctor. You have the best chance of remaining seizure-free without medication if: You had few seizures before you started taking seizure medicine.

What is the difference between epilepsy and seizure? ›

A seizure is a single occurrence, whereas epilepsy is a neurological condition characterized by two or more unprovoked seizures.

What causes constant seizures? ›

Seizures can happen for many reasons; It may be from high levels of salt or sugar in your blood; brain injury from a stroke or head injury brain problems you are born with or perhaps a brain tumor. Dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, high fever or illnesses or infections that hurt your brain.

How long can a seizure last before brain damage? ›

A seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes, or having more than 1 seizure within a 5 minutes period, without returning to a normal level of consciousness between episodes is called status epilepticus. This is a medical emergency that may lead to permanent brain damage or death.

Should you let a person sleep after a seizure? ›

Yes, let him sleep. When he has the seizure make sure he is on the floor where he will not injury himself. If he has been sick and has a lot of mucus make sure he is on his side so that the mucus and saliva does not choke him. Also time the seizure, anything over five minutes call the emt.

Why is timing a seizure important? ›

the time of a seizure can help you recognize possible triggers. Talk to the family about what they use to track seizures and what to track. Find what works for your school and share information with the family and epilepsy care team.

What is a seizure action plan? ›

What is a Seizure Action Plan? A Seizure Action Plan [PDF – 41 KB] contains the essential information school staff may need to know in order to help a student who has seizures. It includes information on first aid, parent and health care provider contacts, and medications specifically for that child.

What are the 4 types of seizures? ›

These words are used to describe generalized seizures:
  • Tonic: Muscles in the body become stiff.
  • Atonic: Muscles in the body relax.
  • Myoclonic: Short jerking in parts of the body.
  • Clonic: Periods of shaking or jerking parts on the body.

What are complications of seizures? ›

Possible Complications

Difficulty learning. Breathing in food or saliva into the lungs during a seizure, which can cause aspiration pneumonia. Injury from falls, bumps, self-inflicted bites, driving or operating machinery during a seizure. Permanent brain damage (stroke or other damage)

Videos

1. Seizures - Seizure Types | Generalized vs Focal Seizures | Causes of Seizures (Mnemonic)
(Rhesus Medicine)
2. BokSmart - Acute on-field treatment of head, neck and spine
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3. Medical Management of Childhood Seizures
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4. Medical management of acute pancreatitis - initial management of acute pancreatitis
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5. How To Help Someone Having Epileptic Seizures /Fits - Medanta Hospital
(Medanta)
6. ABCDE assessment - a quick overview
(CritIC)

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Birthday: 1997-01-04

Address: Apt. 156 12935 Runolfsdottir Mission, Greenfort, MN 74384-6749

Phone: +16704982844747

Job: Corporate Administration Planner

Hobby: Mountain biking, Jewelry making, Stone skipping, Lacemaking, Knife making, Scrapbooking, Letterboxing

Introduction: My name is Kareem Mueller DO, I am a vivacious, super, thoughtful, excited, handsome, beautiful, combative person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.