Skin Infections Archives - Page 2 of 3 - Mainline Dermatology (2022)

Granuloma

by tmartin | Sep 9, 2019 | Skin Infections

Granuloma is a generic term that refers to a small nodule. It can be any type of nodule, from benign to malignant. Granulomas occur throughout the body. Two types of granuloma apply expressly to the skin:

Pyogenic Granuloma. Pyogenic granuloma looks like small, reddish bumps on the skin that tend to bleed. It is caused by an injury to the skin. It is most frequently found on the hands, arms and face. In some cases, the nodule will spontaneously disappear. More often, the lesions need to be removed by surgery. There may be some scarring as a result of these treatments.

Granuloma Annulare. This type of nodule can occur in any person, but is more common in children and young adults. It is characterized by a ring-shaped lesion that is round and firm; red, white or purple skin around a clear crater of normal skin. It can appear individually or in groups. Most often, it appears on tops of hands and feet, elbows and knees. Most people have no other symptoms, but some may experience itchiness at the site of the lesion. Granuloma annulare can resolve itself and may or may not disappear over time without treatment. However, if the incidence is widespread or aesthetically undesirable, a dermatologist may prescribe a steroid cream or inject steroids just below the skin’s surface to speed healing. Another successful treatment is PUVA, in which a medication called psoralen is given and then the area is exposed to ultraviolet light.

Herpes Simplex Virus

by tmartin | Sep 9, 2019 | Skin Infections

A group of viral infections that cause sores on the mouth (oral herpes) or genitals (genital herpes).. There are two types of Herpes Simplex Virus:

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1is the most common form of herpes that affects most people at least once during childhood. It is passed from person-to-person through contact with saliva. It is responsible for the formation of cold sores (fever blisters) and canker sores around the mouth and lips. It may also cause an enlargement of lymph nodes in the neck. Generally, this type of herpes does not need any treatment however, oral medications to treat are available. It will disappear on its own in seven to ten days.

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2is sexually transmitted either to the genital area or mouth. About one in five adults in the U.S. has this form of the herpes virus, although many people don’t know they have it. The infection is characterized by sores that look like small pimples or blisters, which break open quickly and ooze fluid. This is followed by a period of crusting over and scabbing until the lesions finally heal, which can take up to four weeks. The infection spreads to areas of skin that come into contact with secretions from the blisters. The lesions most frequently appear on the vagina, vulva, penis, scrotum testicles, thighs or buttocks. They may be accompanied by a fever, swollen glands, headache or painful urination. Many people with genital herpes experience sensations of itching, tingling, burning or pain in areas where lesions will develop.

Genital herpes is diagnosed through a viral culture test of the blister fluid from a lesion and blood tests. There is no known cure. Treatment is designed to reduce pain and hasten healing and includes antiviral medications. For people with more severe, prolonged or frequent outbreaks, your dermatologist may prescribe a stronger antiviral drug.

On average, adults with genital herpes have about four or five outbreaks a year. The first outbreak is usually the most severe and more outbreaks occur the first year than any subsequent year. Generally, symptoms begin to appear about two weeks after transmission. The virus takes root in nerve cells, lying dormant until it re-emerges with another outbreak. Outbreaks are known to be triggered by stress, illness or excessive sunlight. It is important for people with genital herpes to avoid sexual contact during an active outbreak to reduce the risk of passing the infection on to a sex partner. However, herpes simplex virus type 2 can be transmitted a few days before the appearance of any lesions. That is why people with this infection are encouraged to practice safe sex and use condoms at all times.

Impetigo

by tmartin | Sep 9, 2019 | Skin Infections

Impetigo is a common skin infection usually found in children and infants. It is characterized as single or multiple blisters filled with pus, which pop easily and leave a reddish, raw-looking base and/or honey-colored crust. In most children, impetigo first appears near the nose and then spreads through scratching to other parts of the face, arms or legs. The blisters tend to be itchy.

There are three forms of impetigo:

Ordinary Impetigois caused by Streptococcal germs. It appears as red sores that rupture quickly, ooze a fluid and then form a honey-colored crust. It primarily affects children from infancy to age two.

Bulbous Impetigoappears as fluid-filled blisters caused by Staphylococcus germs. This contagious infection is carried by the fluid that oozes from the blisters.

Ecthyma, a more serious form of impetigo that penetrates to the second layer of skin (dermis). It is characterized by sores that are painful and/or fluid or pus-filled. These lesions most commonly appear on the legs or feet. The sores break open and scab with a hard yellow-gray crust. It can also cause swollen lymph glands in the affected area.

Impetigo is generally treated with a seven-to-10-day course of prescription oral antibiotics and/or topical antibiotics. The sores tend to heal slowly, so it is important to complete the full course of medications. Please note that over-the-counter topical antibiotics (such as Neosporin) are not effective for treating impetigo.

Intertrigo

by tmartin | Sep 9, 2019 | Skin Infections

A skin inflammation that occurs in warm, moist folds of the body where two skin surfaces chafe against each other. It most commonly appears on the inner thighs, armpits, groin, the crease on the back of the neck, the bottom of breasts in women and below the belly in obese people. It can be caused by a bacterial, yeast or fungal infection. Symptoms include a reddish-brown rash that looks raw and may ooze or itch. In severe cases, the skin may crack or bleed.

Treatment for intertrigo focuses on keeping the affected area dry and exposed to air. Your dermatologist may prescribe steroidal creams, oral antibiotics or antifungal medications (depending on the cause of the infection) to relieve itching and promote healing. Applying warm, moist compresses to the area can also help relieve itching.

Lyme Disease

by tmartin | Sep 9, 2019 | Skin Infections

Lyme disease is a bacterial illness and inflammatory disease that spreads through tick bites. Deer ticks house the spirochete bacterium (Borellia burgdorferi) in their stomachs. When one of these ticks bites the human skin, it may pass the bacteria into the body. These ticks tend to be attracted to creases in the body, so Lyme disease most often appears in armpits, the nape of the neck or the back of knees. It can cause abnormalities in the skin, heart, joints and nervous system.

Lyme disease was first identified in 1975 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. More than 150,000 cases have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control since 1982. Cases have been reported from every state, although it is more commonly seen in the Northeast, Upper Midwest and Pacific Coast. Lyme disease has also been reported in European and Asian countries.

There are three phases to the disease:

Early Localized Phase. During this initial phase, the skin around the bite develops an expanding ring of redness. The ring may have a bull’s eye appearance with a bright red outer ring surrounding clear skin in the center. Most people don’t remember being bitten by a tick. More than one in four patients never gets a rash. The skin redness may be accompanied by fatigue, chills, muscle and joint stiffness, swollen lymph nodes and/or headaches.

Early Disseminated Phase. Weeks to months after the rash disappears, the bacteria spread throughout the body, impacting the joints, heart and nervous system. Symptoms include migrating pain in the joints, neck ache, tingling or numbing of the extremities, enlarged lymph glands, sore throat, abnormal pulse, fever, changes in vision or fatigue.

Late Dissemination Phase. Late in the dissemination of the disease, patients may experience an inflammation of the heart, which can lead to heart failure. Nervous system issues develop, such as paralysis of facial muscles (Bell’s Palsy) and diseases of the peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy). It is also common for arthritis and inflammation of the joints to appear, which cause swelling, stiffness and pain.

Lyme disease is diagnosed through a combination of a visual examination and a blood test for Lyme bacteria antibodies. Most cases of Lyme disease are curable using antibiotics, but the longer the delay, the more difficult it is to treat. Your dermatologist may prescribe medications to help alleviate joint stiffening.

The best form of prevention is to avoid tick bites. Use insect repellent containing DEET. Wear long sleeves and pants when outdoors. Tuck the sleeves into gloves and pants into socks to keep your skin covered. After a hike, check the skin and look for any tick bites, especially on children. If you do find a tick, don’t panic. Use tweezers to disengage the tick from the skin. Grab the tick by the head or mouthparts as close as possible to where the bite has entered the skin. Pull firmly and steadily away from the skin until the tick disengages. Clean the bite wound with disinfectant and monitor the bite mark for other symptoms. You can place the tick in a jar or plastic bag and take it to your dermatologist for examination.

Ringworm (Tinea Corporis)

by tmartin | Sep 9, 2019 | Skin Infections

Ringworm is a common fungal infection, especially among children, that appears on different parts of the body. It is characterized by ring-shaped, scaly and itchy patches of the skin. The patches may blister or ooze fluid. Ringworm is contagious and can be passed from person to person or through contact with contaminated personal care products, clothing or linens. Pets, particularly cats, can also pass on the infection.

The fungi are attracted to warm, moist environments, which is why the most common forms of ringworm include:

  • Tinea Barbae, which occurs on bearded areas of the face and neck.
  • Tinea Capitus, which occurs on the scalp.
  • Tinea Cruris, also known as Jock Itch, occurs in the groin area.
  • Tinea Pedis, also known as Athlete’s Foot, occurs between the toes.

Ringworm generally responds well to home remedies and will disappear in about four weeks. In addition to keeping the area clean and dry, you can apply over-the-counter antifungal powders, lotions or creams. In more severe cases, your dermatologist may recommend prescription antifungal medications and antibiotics.

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