Vocabulary: Family And Kinship (2023)

Vocabulary: Family And Kinship


The Nepali family is a complicated family, and its tree is there to prove that. Families in Nepal tend to be extended, with the smallest of relationships cherished and remembered. The family tree can be roughly split into a paternal side and a maternal side, with each side having a slightly different term for each member. Furthermore, there are different terms to refer to the relatives of your spouse, along with different words depending on whether you are a male or a female.

Family is calledपरिवार (pariwār) in Nepali.Kinship is calledनातागोता (nātāgotā) in Nepali.


Vocabulary: Family And Kinship (1)

For a high-definition version, clickhere.


Vocabulary: Family And Kinship (2)

For a high-definition version, clickhere.


The immediate family have the same terms for both sides of the family.

Grandfather = बाजे (bāje); हजुरबुवा (hajurbuwā)
Grandmother = बज्यै (bajyai); हजुरआमा (hajurāmā)
Father = बुवा (buwā); बाबा (bābā)
Mother = आमा (āmā)
Elder brother = दाइ(dāi)
Younger brother =भाइ (bhāi)
Elder sister = दिदी (didī)
Younger sister = बहिनी (bahinī)
Daughter = छोरी (chorī)
Son= छोरा(chorā)
Granddaughter =नातिनी (nātinī)
Grandson = नाति(nāti)

(Video) Family Trees in Other Languages: our world's 7 kinship systems

Husband = श्रीमान्(śrīmān);पति (pati);बुढा (buḍhā)
Wife= श्रीमती(śrīmatī);पत्नी (patnī) ; बुढी (buḍhī)


In order to navigate through the nomenclature, the following applies to your blood relatives (includes spouses):

  • Terms are listed assuming that your mother or father is already accounted for. This means, a term such as“Younger sister” in“Maternal Side” means“Mother’s younger sister”. For example, your“(mother’s) younger sister” is your“chyāmā”.
  • In case of sibling side, the term is explicitly written. For example, your“sister’s son” is your sister’s son.
  • Terms are listed so that“younger” means someone who is relatively younger than your parent, and“elder” indicates someone who is elder than your parent. In cases where this is not applied, then the term applies equally without age into consideration.
  • Terms which have (m) in front of the term is the term you use if you are a male, and (f) is the term you use if you are a female. For example, your sister’s son is your“bhānjā” if you are a male, and“chorā” if you are a female.
  • Cousins use the same term as your siblings. For example, your aunt’s son will be either your“dāi” or “bhāi”, depending on their seniority.

Maternal Side

Brother =मामा (māmā)
Brother’s wife =माइजू (māijū)
Elder sister =ठुली आमा (ṭhulī āmā)
Elder sister’s husband =ठुलो बुवा (ṭhulo buwā)
Younger sister =छ्यामा (chyāmā)
Younger sister’s husband = बुवा (buwā)

Paternal Side

Elder brother = ठुलो बुवा (ṭhulo buwā)
Elder brother’s wife = ठुली आमा (ṭhulī āmā)
Younger brother = काका (kākā)
Younger brother’s wife = काकी (kākī)
Sister = फुपू (phupū)
Sister’s husband = फुपा (phupā)

Sibling Side

Brother’s wife =भाउजू (bhāujū)
(f) Brother’s daughter = भदै(नी) (bhadai(nī)) [ is optional]
(f) Brother’s son = भदाहा (bhadāhā)
(m) Brother’s daughter = भतिजी (bhatijī)
(m) Brother’s son =भतिजो (bhatijo)

(Video) Family Tree Chart | Useful Family Relationship Chart | Family Words in English

Sister’s husband =भिनाजु (bhināju)
(f) Sister’sdaughter = छोरी (chorī)
(f) Sister’s son = छोरा (chorā)
(m) Sister’sdaughter = भान्जी (bhānjī)
(m) Sister’sson = भान्जा (bhānjā)


In case of in-laws, the term is explicitly written for the following four terms and apply consistently throughout the family tree. As for your spouse’s relatives, they are separated according to whether your spouse is your husband or wife, and the term is assumed to refer back to your spouse. For example, in“husband’s side”, the term“younger sister” refers to your“husband’s younger sister”, which is called“nanda”.

Father-in-law = ससुरा (sasurā)
Mother-in-law = सासू (sāsū)

Daughter-in-law =बुहारी (buhārī)
Son-in-law = ज्वाइँ (jwāim̐)


Elder brother = जेठाजु (jeṭhāju)
Elder brother’s wife = जेठानी (jeṭhānī)
Younger brother = देवर (dewar)
Younger brother’s wife = देउरानी(deurānī)
Elder sister = आमाजू (āmājū)
Elder sister’s husband = बुवा (buwā)
Younger sister = नन्द (nanda)
Younger sister’s husband = नन्दभाइ (nandabhāi)


Elder brother = जेठान (jeṭhān)
Elder brother’s wife = जेठान दिदी (jeṭhān didī)
Younger brother = सालो (sālo)
Younger brother’s wife = बहिनी (bahinī)
Elder sister = दिदी(didī)
Elder sister’s husband = दाइ (dāi)
Younger sister = साली (sālī)
Younger sister’s husband = साढु भाइ(sāḍhu bhāi)



The seniority terms are terms denoting the order of birth. The first born always takes up the term for first born, while the last born always takes up the term for last born. Furthermore, the genders are separated, meaning they are counted as first born daughters and first born sons. The rest are relative, so if there are two children (both female), they would be first born daughter and“last born” daughter instead of“second born” daughter. Similarly, if there are three daughters, the order would be: first born daughter, second born daughter, and last born daughter. Finally, if there are mixed sexes, for example, two daughters and one son, the order would be: first born daughter, last born daughter, first born son (even if the son was born after the last born daughter). Remember that the seniority terms are declinable adjectives, so the female form must decline accordingly (e.g. jeṭho> jeṭhī). The forms listed are in neutral/masculine.

First born =जेठो (jeṭho)
Second born =माहिलो (māhilo)
Third born = साहिँलो (sāhim̐lo)
Fourth born =काहिँलो (kāhim̐lo)
Last born =कान्छो (kāncho)


This is a term that often comes up in Nepali conversations, and often has the casual meaning of“friend” in Nepali. However, what does it really mean in terms of family context?

Officially, सोल्टी (solṭī) orसोल्टा (solṭā) is a term used by women to refer to their brother’sसालो (sālo) or जेठान (jeṭhān), basically her brother’s wife’s brother. Similarly,सोल्टिनी (solṭinī) orसोल्टिना (solṭinā) is the term used to refer to one’s brother’s wife’s sister.

However, the lines are pretty blurred, sosolṭīcould also be used to refer to one’s sibling’s spouse’s brother, and solṭinīto refer to one’s sibling’s spouse’s sister.

The following pink line shows who yoursolṭīis. The relation goes two way, so you would either be theirsolṭīorsolṭinīdepending on your gender.

Vocabulary: Family And Kinship (3)

An example solṭī line.

(Video) Kids vocabulary - Family - family members & tree - Learn English educational video for kids


  • In the Eastern dialect, ठुलो बुवा (ṭhulo buwā) andठुली आमा (ṭhulī āmā) are replaced byबडा बुवा (baḍā buwā) and बडीआमा (baḍī āmā) respectively, with the end part often omitted.
  • The seniority can be denoted on relatives as well. So, if you father had three sisters, they could be referred to as:जेठी फुपू (jeṭhīphupū), माहिली फुपू (māhilīphupū) and कान्छी फुपू (kānchī phupū).
  • If you want to indicate a step-relationship, you have to use the term सौता (sautā) for males and सौतेनी (sautenī) for females before the kinship term. For example, your सौतेनी आमा (sautenī āmā) is your stepmother. Note that use of“step” term can be seen as taboo or derogatory in Nepal.
  • Seniority terms in case of immediate family (other than one’s progeny) indicates step-relationship. For example, if your father married two women (with the elder wife being your mother), he would have aजेठी श्रीमती (jeṭhī śrīmatī) and कान्छी श्रीमती (kānchī śrīmatī), while they would be your आमा (āmā) and कान्छी आमा (kānchī āmā) respectively.
  • Seniority terms in case of progeny (children, grandchildren etc.) usually only indicates their birth rank. As mentioned earlier, you can use सौता (sautā) and सौतेनी (sautenī) to refer to step-progeny.


“You are Mary, coming to Nepal with your husband Ashish (29)to meet his relatives for a week. You are pretty excited to meet his parents, Jaya and Prakash, who have three children together, born in the following order: Ankita, Ashish, Anjali. While one of the sisters is unmarried, the other, Anjali, has two children, Shital (5F) and Rupesh (3M).

After landing at the airport, you go outside and see a few relaives Ashish told you about. Ashish’s beloved elder aunt from his father’s side, Mrs. Gurung, had come over today to receive you two. Mrs. Gurung had also brought along her daughter with her, Mimamsha (20). Prajwal, Jaya’s brother, also arrived 10 minutes later with his wife, Shristi.”


Vocabulary: Family And Kinship (4)

You can obtain a fillable PDF document here. To fill, download and open the file, and then click on the empty field to type.


0. Who is Jaya to Ashish?
=आमा (āmā) [mother]

1. Who is Ankita to Anjali?
2. Who is Ashish to Anjali?
3. Who is Rupesh to Ankita?
4. Who is Mrs. Gurung to Ashish?
5. Who is Ashish to Mrs. Gurung?
6. Who is Mimamsha to Ashish?
7. Who are you to Prakash?
8. Who is Ankita to Prajwal?
9. Who are you to Shital?
10. Who is Ankita to you?
11. Who are you to Anjali?
12. Who is Prajwal to Mrs. Gurung?

(Video) PART 1: Family-Related Vocabulary for Twi Learners | Kinship and Other Related Twi Terms



Vocabulary: Family And Kinship (5)

B.1. दिदी (didī) [elder sister]
B.2. दाइ (dāi) [elder brother]
B.3. छोरा (chorā) [(f) sister’s son]
B.4. फुपू (phupū) [paternal aunt]
B.5.भदाहा (bhadāhā) [(f) brother’s son]
B.6.बहिनी (bahinī) [female cousin]
B.7. बुहारी (buhārī) [son’s wife]
B.8. भान्जी (bhānjī) [maternal uncle’s sister’s daughter]
B.9. माइजू (māijū) [mother’s brother’s wife]
B.10. आमाजू (āmājū) [husband’s elder sister]
B.11. भाउजू (bhāujū) [brother’s wife]
B.12. सोल्टी (solṭī) [Mrs. Gurung’s brother’s wife’s brother]


What is family vocabulary? ›

Your family members are also called your relatives. You have an immediate or nuclear family and an extended family. Your immediate family includes your father, mother and siblings. Your extended family includes all of the people in your father and mother's families. Your sibling is your brother or sister.

What is the relationship between family and kinship? ›

In human society, a family and kinship are formed by marriage and descent. In indigenous societies, families sharing a common ancestor are called a lineage. Lineages form a socially related group, called a clan, in which common culture is shared (1–3).

Who is in your family answer? ›

A family is a basic social unit consisting of parents and their children. Members living in a family are father, mother, brother, and sisters. Was this answer helpful?

What is family and types of family? ›

The family is made up of people who are related by blood and live together in a home. There are two types of family. These are the Nuclear family and Extended family.

What is the vocabulary of kinship? ›

/ˈkɪn.ʃɪp/ the relationship between members of the same family: Different ethnic groups have different systems of kinship. a feeling of being close or similar to other people or things: He felt a real sense of kinship with his fellow soldiers.

What are the 4 types of vocabulary? ›

Educators often consider four types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening vocabulary refers to the words we need to know to understand what we hear.

What are the 3 types of kinship? ›

Types of Kinship. Kinship can be broken down into consanguineal, affinal, and social. Consanguineal includes direct blood relatives such as parents and children (lineal kinship), and siblings (collateral kinship). Marriages are considered affinal kinship.

Why is family and kinship important? ›

Family and kinship

Kinship systems provide each person with a defined role (based on age, gender, and other factors), and serve to link people via duties of care [7]. Children are attached to and cared for by many adults, including grandparents, aunties, uncles and older siblings [3] [6].

What are the 6 types of kinship? ›

Anthropologists have discovered that there are only six basic kin naming patterns or systems used by almost all of the thousands of cultures in the world. They are referred to as the Eskimo, Hawaiian, Sudanese, Omaha, Crow, and Iroquois systems.

What is family best answer? ›

Family: A family is a group of two or more persons related by birth, marriage, or adoption who live together; all such related persons are considered as members of one family.

How many type of families are there? ›

We have stepfamilies; single-parent families; families headed by two unmarried partners, either of the opposite sex or the same sex; households that include one or more family members from a generation; adoptive families; foster families; and families where children are raised by their grandparents or other relatives.

What is a small family answer? ›

Small family: A nuclear family with parents and just one or two kids is a small family.

What are functions of family? ›

The family ideally serves several functions for society. It socializes children, provides practical and emotional support for its members, regulates sexual reproduction, and provides its members with a social identity.

What is the role of family? ›

As basic and essential building blocks of societies, families have a crucial role in social development. They bear the primary responsibility for the education and socialization of children as well as instilling values of citizenship and belonging in the society.

What is the important of family? ›

Family is important because they can offer support and security coupled with unconditional love; they will always look to see and bring out the best in you even if you cannot see it for yourself.

What are the 5 types of kinship? ›

According to Dr. Dubey, there are eight such primary kins. They are husband-wife, father-son, mother- daughter, father-daughter, mother-son, younger-elder brothers, younger-elder sisters and sister-brother.

What is kinship example? ›

Examples of kinship
  • parent (father or mother)
  • child (son or daughter)
  • sibling (brother or sister)
  • grandparent (grandfather or grandmother)
  • grandchild (grandson or granddaughter)
  • uncle or aunt.
  • nibling (nephew or niece)
  • cousin.

What is kinship VS family? ›

A person has kin they will never know, be those kin from past generations or simply not in the person's circle of influence. In contrast, a family experiences life together and knows each other well.

What are the 10 vocabulary words? ›

Full list of words from this list:
  • atrocity. an act of shocking cruelty.
  • fanatical. marked by excessive enthusiasm for a cause or idea.
  • pensive. deeply or seriously thoughtful.
  • respite. a pause from doing something.
  • discordant. not in agreement or harmony.
  • eloquent. ...
  • encompass. ...
  • imperceptible.

What are the 20 vocabulary words? ›

20+ Vocabulary Words You Should Use
  • Archaic (adjective) Definition: very old or old fashioned. ...
  • Zephyr (noun) Definition: a brief gusty wind. ...
  • Quiescent (adjective) Definition: peacefulness, dormant, inactive. ...
  • Plethora (noun) Definition: excess, a large amount. ...
  • Degust (verb) ...
  • Poignant (adjective) ...
  • Abate (verb) ...
  • Sycophant (noun)
15 Feb 2017

What are the 8 vocabulary words? ›

8th grade vocabulary words
29 more rows

What are the 2 types of kinship? ›

There are two basic kinds of kinship ties: Those based on blood that trace descent. Those based on marriage, adoption, or other connections.

What is kinship simple? ›

Kinship is the relationship between members of the same family. The ties of kinship may have helped the young man find his way in life. ...

What is kinship rule? ›

The rules and behavior associated with kinship involve each individual Apache in a complex network of social relationships each carrying different obligations. Broadly speaking, each Apache individual has relatives that are referred to as 'ki' with which one can form strong familial ties.

What's the importance of kinship? ›

Kinship establishes where a person fits in their Community. Kinship looks different across communities and nations. It helps determine a person's relationship to others and to the universe and their responsibilities towards other people and Country.

What are the benefits of kinship? ›

Benefits of Kinship Care
  • Minimizes trauma. ...
  • Improves children's well-being. ...
  • Increases permanency for children. ...
  • Improves behavioral and mental health outcomes. ...
  • Promotes sibling ties. ...
  • Provides a bridge for older youth. ...
  • Preserves children's cultural identity and community connections.
1 Jul 2017

Why is it important to learn kinship? ›

The study of kinship is central to anthropology. It provides deep insights into human relationships and alliances, including those who can and cannot marry, mechanisms that are used to create families, and even the ways social and economic resources are dispersed within a group.

What is another name for kinship? ›

What is another word for kinship?
1 more row

What is family example? ›

Anthropologists classify most family organizations as matrifocal (a mother and her children), patrifocal (a father and his children), conjugal (a wife, her husband, and children, also called the nuclear family), avuncular (a man, his sister, and her children), or extended (in addition to parents and children, may ...

What are the 12 types of families? ›

Some of them are:
  • Single-parent families.
  • Racially diverse families.
  • Culturally diverse families.
  • Blended families.
  • Extended families.
  • Childless families.
  • Foster/Adoptive families.
  • Same-sex families.

What's a family life? ›

noun. : the kind of life a person normally leads when one is married and has children.

What is the family form? ›

The Family Form A is used to request assistance from the Self-Help Office. If your case is a child support case involving Child Support Enforcement/Department of Revenue, you must file a Form C. The case manager does not know you have filed a case or filed papers in your case, unless you file a Family Form A.

What are the 7 types of family? ›

Types of Family Structures
  • Nuclear families.
  • Single-parent families.
  • Extended families.
  • Childless families.
  • Stepfamilies.
  • Grandparent families.

What are the characteristics of family? ›

Still, there are several characteristics that are generally identified with a well-functioning family. Some include: support; love and caring for other family members; providing security and a sense of belonging; open communication; making each person within the family feel important, valued, respected and esteemed.

Who make a family? ›

family, a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood, or adoption, constituting a single household and interacting with each other in their respective social positions, usually those of spouses, parents, children, and siblings.

What is a family answer Class 2? ›

A family is a group of people who love each other, support each other and are related to each other from birth. There are four members in my family, and our family is a nuclear family. My family is the most important part of my life. My father is a Banker, and my mother is a Professor.

What is a family one sentence answer? ›

Family is defined as a group of people consisting children, parents, aunts, uncles, cousins and grandparents.

What is family cycle? ›

What is a family life cycle? The emotional and intellectual stages you pass through from childhood to your retirement years as a member of a family are called the family life cycle. In each stage, you face challenges in your family life that allow you to build or gain new skills.

What are the rules of the family? ›

Examples of common family rules:
  • No hurting. Keep your hands and feet to yourself.
  • No interrupting. Wait for your turn to speak.
  • No yelling in the house. Use an inside voice when talking in the house.
  • No climbing or jumping on furniture. Sit on the couch or lie down on the bed.

What are the 5 primary roles of a family? ›

The Function of Families
  • physical maintenance and care of family members;
  • addition of new members through adoption or procreation;
  • socialization of children;
  • social control of its members;
  • production, consumption and distribution of goods and services; and.
  • affective nurturance (love).

What is the most important function of a family? ›

One of the most important functions of the family is the socialization of children. In most societies the family is the major unit through which socialization occurs. Second, the family is ideally a major source of practical and emotional support for its members.

What is family in society? ›

In all human societies the family is a primary social unit, and as an institution the family is older than that of religion or state. Children are born and nurtured in the family until such time as they grow into adults and found their own families.

What is family as a social group? ›

Family is a socially recognized group (usually joined by blood, marriage, cohabitation, or adoption) that forms an emotional connection among its members and that serves as an economic unit of society. Sociologists identify different types of families based on how one enters into them.

What is family short essay? ›

Families are an integral part of one's life. It does not matter if you have a small or big family, as long as you have one. A family serves as the first school to the child where one learns about various things. The basic knowledge about one's culture and identity comes from their family only.

What is a family to you? ›

“Family means having someone to love you unconditionally in spite of you and your shortcomings. Family is loving and supporting one another even when it's not easy to do so. It's being the best person you could be so that you may inspire your love ones.

How do you teach family vocabulary? ›

Introducing the vocabulary to talk about family is the most important. When teaching about family, it is easiest to teach it with a family tree. You will need a large family tree, illustrating mother, father, sisters, brothers, grandparents, children, grandchildren, aunts, uncles and cousins.

What is a vocabulary and examples? ›

və- plural vocabularies. : a list or collection of words or of words and phrases usually alphabetically arranged and explained or defined : lexicon. The vocabulary for the week is posted online every Monday. : a sum or stock of words employed by a language, group, individual, or work or in a field of knowledge.

What are the 3 types of vocabulary? ›

What are the Different Types of Vocabulary?
  • Reading Vocabulary. A major part of vocabulary building is reading. ...
  • Speaking Vocabulary. Speaking vocabulary comprises words you use while speaking. ...
  • Writing Vocabulary. Your knowledge of spelling heavily influences your writing vocabulary. ...
  • Listening Vocabulary.
18 Oct 2021

What vocabulary means? ›

The adjective mean can describe someone who's stingy or ungenerous, but it also means "unkind or unfair," which is what a little kid intends to convey when she yells at her mother, "You're mean!" In the sentence, "She lived in a mean little house," mean has yet another meaning, this time being "shabby or poor."

What are the 5 types of vocabulary? ›

Types of vocabulary
  • Reading vocabulary.
  • Listening vocabulary.
  • Speaking vocabulary.
  • Writing vocabulary.
  • Final vocabulary.

What is the importance of a family? ›

These bonds are important because family helps us get through the most disastrous times and the best times. Family is important because they can offer support and security coupled with unconditional love; they will always look to see and bring out the best in you even if you cannot see it for yourself.

What are the 5 vocabulary strategies? ›

Effective vocabulary teaching has five key principles.
  • Focus on rich meanings, not just dictionary definitions. ...
  • Emphasize the connections among words. ...
  • Promote usage of the words. ...
  • Review is important. ...
  • Involve students in identifying some of the words to be studied.

Why is vocabulary so important? ›

Vocabulary is the foundation of language

In a nutshell, vocabulary is important because it's the basis of all language. It's the raw building blocks that we can use to express our thoughts and ideas, share information, understand others and grow personal relationships.

What are vocabulary skills? ›

​Vocabulary is an important focus of literacy teaching and refers to the knowledge or words, including their structure (morphology), use (grammar), meanings (semantics), and links to other words (word/semantic relationships).

What is vocabulary example sentence? ›

Vocabulary sentence example. Surely his vocabulary included such a simple word. Their vocabulary is far more formal than the others. Her sign language vocabulary had increased, but many things were still difficult to understand.

What are the main types of vocabulary? ›

Each type has a different purpose and, luckily, vocabulary development in one type facilitates growth in another.
  • Listening Vocabulary:
  • Speaking Vocabulary:
  • Reading Vocabulary:
  • Writing Vocabulary:


1. Lakota Kinship Vocabulary
(Lakota Language Learning)
2. Family and kinship
3. Members of the Family in English
(Woodward English)
4. Theories About Family & Marriage: Crash Course Sociology #37
5. Family I Kids Vocabulary - Family Members I English For Kids
(Pingo C)
6. Introduction to Kinship Diagrams | Cultural Anthropology
(D. Jon Scott)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Pres. Carey Rath

Last Updated: 02/04/2023

Views: 5972

Rating: 4 / 5 (61 voted)

Reviews: 84% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Pres. Carey Rath

Birthday: 1997-03-06

Address: 14955 Ledner Trail, East Rodrickfort, NE 85127-8369

Phone: +18682428114917

Job: National Technology Representative

Hobby: Sand art, Drama, Web surfing, Cycling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Leather crafting, Creative writing

Introduction: My name is Pres. Carey Rath, I am a faithful, funny, vast, joyous, lively, brave, glamorous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.