Voltarol 1.16% Emulgel, gel - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) (2022)

This information is intended for use by health professionals

Voltarol 1.16% Emulgel, gel

Diethylammonium-{-o-[2,6-dichlorophenyl)-amino]-phenyl}-acetate.

1g of Voltarol Emulgel contains 11.6mg of the active substance diclofenac diethylammonium, which corresponds to 10mg diclofenac sodium.

For full list of excipients, see section 6.1

Gel for topical administration

Oil emulsion in an aqueous gel. White to off white, soft, homogeneous, cream like

For the local symptomatic relief of pain and inflammation in:

- trauma of the tendons, ligaments, muscles and joints, eg due to sprains, strains and bruises

- localised forms of soft tissue rheumatism

It is recommended that the treatment be reviewed after 14 days in these indications. For the treatment of osteoarthritis of superficial joints such as the knee. In the treatment of osteoarthritis, therapy should be reviewed after 4 weeks.

For cutaneous use only

Adults and children 14 years and over: Voltarol Emulgel should be rubbed gently into the skin. Depending on the size of the affected site to be treated 2-4g (a circular shaped mass approximately 2.0-2.5cm in diameter) of gel should be applied 3 - 4 times a day.

After application, the hands should be washed unless they are the site being treated.

Use in the elderly: The usual adult dosage may be used.

Children and adolescents: There are insufficient data on efficacy and safety available for the children and adolescents below 14 years of age (see also contraindications section 4.3). In children aged 14 years and over, if this product is required for more than 7 days for pain relief or if the symptoms worsen the patient/parents of the adolescent is/are advised to consult a doctor.

Voltarol Emulgel is suitable for the transmission of ultrasound and may be used as a couplant in combination with ultrasound therapy. If large areas of the body are covered with gel, systemic absorption will be greater and the risk of side-effects increased, especially if the therapy is used frequently.

• Patients with or without chronic asthma in whom asthma, angioedema, urticaria or acute rhinitis are precipitated by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or other non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

• Hypersensitivity to diclofenac or any of the excipients

• Third trimester of pregnancy.

• The use in children and adolescents aged less than 14 years is contraindicated.

The possibility of experiencing systemic adverse events (those associated with the use of systemic forms of diclofenac) from application of Voltarol Emulgel cannot be excluded if the preparation is used at higher dosage/large amounts over large areas of skin and over a prolonged period (see the product information on systemic forms of diclofenac e.g. oral or injection for systemic adverse reactions).

Concomitant use of systemic NSAIDs should be cautioned since the possibility of an increase in incidence of untoward effects, particularly systemic side effects, cannot be ruled out.

Voltarol Emulgel contains propylene glycol and benzyl benzoate, which may cause mild, localised skin irritation in some people.

Like other drugs that inhibit prostaglandin synthetase activity, diclofenac and other NSAIDs can precipitate bronchospasm if administered to patients suffering from or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma.

Voltarol Emulgel should be applied only to intact, non-diseased skin and not to skin wounds or open injuries. It should not be allowed to come into contact with the eyes or mucous membranes, and should not be ingested.

Discontinue the treatment if a skin rash develops after applying the product.

Patients should be warned against excessive exposure to sunlight in order to reduce the incidence of photosensitivity.

Voltarol Emulgel can be used with non-occlusive bandages but should not be used with an airtight occlusive dressing.

Some possibility of gastro-intestinal bleeding in those with a significant history of this condition has been reported in isolated cases.

Instruct patients not to smoke or go near naked flames - risk of severe burns. Fabric (clothing, bedding, dressings etc) that has been in contact with this product burns more easily and is a serious fire hazard. Washing clothing and bedding may reduce product build-up but not totally remove it.

Since systemic absorption of diclofenac from a topical application is very low such interactions are very unlikely. There are no known interactions with Voltarol Emulgel, but for a list of interactions known with oral diclofenac the data sheet for oral dosage forms should be consulted.

Fertility

There are no data available on the use of topical formulations of diclofenac and its effects on fertility in humans.

Pregnancy

The systemic concentration of diclofenac is lower after topical administration, compared to oral formulations. With reference to experience from treatment with NSAIDs with systemic uptake, the following is recommended:

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or the embryo/fetal development. Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage and of cardiac malformation and gastroschisis after use of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The absolute risk for cardiovascular malformation was increased from less than 1%, up to approximately 1.5 %. The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy. In animals, administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation loss and embryo-fetal lethality. In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during the organogenetic period. During the first and second trimester of pregnancy, diclofenac should not be given unless clearly necessary. If diclofenac is used by a woman attempting to conceive, or during the first and second trimester of pregnancy, the dose should be kept as low and duration of treatment as short as possible.

During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose the fetus to:

- cardiopulmonary toxicity (with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension);

- renal dysfunction, which may progress to renal failure with oligo-hydroamniosis;

The mother and the neonate, at the end of pregnancy, to:

- possible prolongation of bleeding time, an anti-aggregating effect which may occur even at very low doses.

- inhibition of uterine contractions resulting in delayed or prolonged labour. Consequently, diclofenac is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Lactation

Like other NSAIDs, diclofenac passes into breast milk in small amounts. However, at therapeutic doses of Voltarol Emulgel no effects on the suckling child are anticipated. Because of a lack of controlled studies in lactating women, the product should only be used during lactation under advice from a healthcare professional. Under this circumstance, Voltarol Emulgel should not be applied on the breasts of nursing mothers, nor elsewhere on large areas of skin or for a prolonged period of time (see section 4.4).

Cutaneous application of Voltarol Emulgel has no influence on the ability to drive and use machines.

Adverse reactions (Table 1) are ranked under heading of frequency, the most frequent first, using the following convention: very common (> 1/10); common ≥ ( 1/100, <1/10); uncommon ≥(1/1,000, < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000, < 1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known: cannot be estimated from the available data.

Table 1

Immune system disorder:

Very rare:

Hypersensitivity (including urticaria), angioneurotic oedema.

Infections and infestations:

Very rare:

Rash pustular.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Very rare:

Asthma.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common:

Rash, eczema, erythema, dermatitis (including dermatitis contact), pruritus

Rare:

Dermatitis bullous

Very rare:

Photosensitivity reaction

Not known:

Desquamation, skin discolouration

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Signs and symptoms

The low systemic absorption of Voltarol Emulgel renders overdose very unlikely. However, undesirable effects, similar to those observed following an overdose of diclofenac tablets, can be expected if Voltarol Emulgel is inadvertently ingested (e.g. 1 tube of 100g contains the equivalent of 1000mg of diclofenac sodium).

Treatment

Management of overdosage with NSAIDs essentially consists of supportive and symptomatic measures. There is no typical clinical picture resulting from Voltarol overdosage. Supportive and symptomatic treatment should be given for complications such as hypotension, renal failure, convulsions, gastro-intestinal irritation, and respiratory depression; specific therapies such as forced diuresis, dialysis or haemoperfusion are probably of no help in eliminating NSAIDs due to their high rate of protein binding and extensive metabolism.

In the event of accidental ingestion, resulting in significant systemic adverse effects, general therapeutic measures normally adopted to treat poisoning with non- steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines should be used. The use of activated charcoal should be considered, especially within a short time (within one hour) of ingestion of a toxic dose.

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Topical products for joint and muscular pain, anti- inflammatory preparations, non-steroids for topical use (ATC code M02A A15).

Diclofenac is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with effective analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. Diclofenac exerts its therapeutic effects primarily through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2).

This medicine is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic preparation designed for topical application. In inflammation and pain of traumatic or rheumatic origin, relieves pain and decreases swelling.

Due to an aqueous-alcoholic base the gel exerts a soothing and cooling effect.

When Voltarol Emulgel is applied locally, the active substance is absorbed through the skin. In healthy volunteers approximately 6% of the dose applied is absorbed, as determined by urinary excretion of diclofenac and its hydroxylated metabolites. Findings in patients confirm that diclofenac penetrates inflamed areas following local application of Voltarol Emulgel. From the skin and underlying tissue, diclofenac preferentially distributes and persists in deep inflamed tissues (such as the joint), rather than in the bloodstream.

After topical administration of Voltarol Emulgel to hand and knee joints diclofenac can be measured in plasma, synovial tissue and synovial fluid. Maximum plasma concentrations of diclofenac are about 100 times lower than after oral administration of Voltarol.

None known.

Diethylamine, carbomers, cetomacrogol, cocoyl capryloccaprate, isopropyl alcohol, liquid paraffin, perfume creme 45 (containing benzyl benzoate), propylene glycol, purified water.

None known.

Three years.

Protect from heat (store below 30°C).

Voltarol Emulgel should be kept out of reach and sight of children.

Aluminium tubes with protective inner coating, available in packs of 10g, 20g and 100g. Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

Aluminium laminated tube (low density polyethylene /aluminium/high density polyethylene (internal layer)) fitted with a high density polyethylene shoulder and closed by a moulded seal. The tube is closed with a polypropylene screw cap, incorporating a moulded feature used to insert, twist and remove the seal before first use. This is available in packs of 10g, 20g and 100g. Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

None.

GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare (UK) Trading Limited,

980 Great West Road

Brentford

Middlesex

TW8 9GS

United Kingdom

PL 44673/0157

11 July 1997

1st May 2020

FAQs

What is Voltarol emulgel? ›

Voltarol Emulgel is a medicated treatment containing a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine. The active ingredient (diclofenac) penetrates the skin to provide relief of pain and inflammation.

How does Voltaren Emulgel work? ›

Voltaren gel

Voltaren gels are topical treatments, which means that you apply them to the skin over the affected area. They work by pooling diclofenac on the surface of the skin; the drug then penetrates the underlying tissues to the inflamed area (e.g. in the muscle) to relieve pain and decrease swelling.

What is the difference between Voltaren and Voltarol? ›

In the US, this drug is referred to as “Voltaren Arthritis Pain.” In the UK, this OTC drug is called “Voltarol.” Both Voltaren Arthritis Pain and Voltarol refer to similar topical products that contain forms of diclofenac as their active ingredient.

What is diclofenac diethylammonium gel? ›

About diclofenac gel and patches

Diclofenac is a medicine called a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is often referred to simply as 'an anti-inflammatory', or as an 'NSAID'. It works by preventing the production of some chemicals in your body which cause pain and inflammation.

What does voltarol gel contain? ›

Voltarol gels contain the active ingredient diclofenac diethylammonium, which is a type of medicine called a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac works by stopping an enzyme in the body called cyclo-oxygenase (COX) from working.

What is Voltarol used for? ›

Voltarol Osteoarthritis Joint Pain Relief Gel is a medicated treatment containing a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The active ingredient (diclofenac) penetrates the skin to provide relief of pain and inflammation.

What are the side effects of Voltarol gel? ›

Side Effects of Voltarol
  • swelling.
  • nausea.
  • headache.
  • dizziness.
  • vomiting.
  • constipation.
  • pruritus.
  • pain in extremity.
9 Jan 2015

How long does Voltaren emulgel take to work? ›

How long does Voltaren take to work? Voltaren contains an effective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine which is clinically proven to relieve arthritis joint pain. With 4-times-a-day use, you may start to feel relief within a few days. You should feel significant pain relief within 7 days of continuous use.

How long does voltarol gel take to work? ›

If you're using diclofenac gel, plasters or patches on your skin, it usually takes 1 to 2 days to work. For arthritis, you may need to use the gel for up to 7 days on the painful joint to feel the full effect. Depending on why you're taking diclofenac, you may only need to take it for a short time.

Are there different types of Voltarol? ›

Voltarol is available in three different forms: Gel, Medicated Plaster and non-medicated Heat Patch.

Who should not use Voltaren emulgel? ›

Voltaren Gel Warnings

Not for use in patients who have had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Higher risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events such as bleeding, ulcers, and perforation of the stomach and intestines in older patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding5.

When should you not use Voltarol? ›

This medicine is not recommended for use in children under 14 years of age. Do not use Voltarol Emulgel for more than: • 2 weeks for muscle and joints injuries (e.g. sprains, strains, bruises) or tendonitis. If you are using the gel for arthritis, your doctor may wish to review your treatment regularly.

What is the mechanism of action of diclofenac? ›

As with all NSAIDs, diclofenac exerts its action via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency.

Is diclofenac gel the same as ibuprofen gel? ›

Are diclofenac and ibuprofen the same? No, diclofenac and ibuprofen are not the same. Diclofenac is a prescription NSAID while ibuprofen can be purchased over-the-counter or with a prescription. Diclofenac is only prescribed for adults while ibuprofen can be used in children.

How much Voltaren gel is absorbed? ›

(Basis: treatment with Voltaren® Gel of 1 knee, 4 times a day versus 50 mg, 3 times a day of oral diclofenac tablets). The amount of diclofenac sodium that is systemically absorbed from Voltaren® Gel is on average 6% of the systemic exposure from an oral form of diclofenac sodium.

Is Voltarol an anti-inflammatory? ›

The Voltarol range of products, which are available over the counter, contain a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) called diclofenac. Diclofenac works to inhibit prostaglandins, substances in the body that cause pain and inflammation.

What is equivalent to Voltarol gel? ›

Feldene (piroxicam) and Voltaren Gel (diclofenac sodium topical gel) are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to relieve the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis. Feldene is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Feldene is taken orally, while Voltaren Gel is a topical (for the skin) medication.

Does Voltaren Gel contain alcohol? ›

The inactive ingredients in VOLTAREN® GEL include: carbomer homopolymer Type C, cocoyl caprylocaprate, fragrance, isopropyl alcohol, mineral oil, polyoxyl 20 cetostearyl ether, propylene glycol, purified water, and strong ammonia solution.

Can you use Voltaren Gel for period pain? ›

The relief of menstrual cramps (period pain). relieve nausea and vomiting you sometimes experience when you have a migraine. Voltaren Rapid 25 belongs to a family of medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Can you use Voltarol gel when pregnant? ›

Pain relief and pregnancy

The use of diclofenac in pregnant women has not been studied; therefore, Voltarol Emulgel products should not be used during pregnancy.

Can you use Voltarol gel with ibuprofen? ›

Can you take Voltarol and Ibuprofen together? Voltarol (diclofenac) gel and ibuprofen are both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs. Voltarol and ibuprofen work in similar ways, therefore, you cannot take Voltarol and ibuprofen together at the same time.

What happens when you use too much Voltaren Gel? ›

Symptoms of overdose/swallowing may include: severe stomach pain, change in the amount of urine, slow/shallow breathing. Do not share this medication with others.

Can you use voltarol long term? ›

Do not use the gel for longer than 14 days unless longer treatment has been recommended by a doctor. The gel is not recommended for use in children under 14 years of age. Voltarol 12 Hour Joint Pain Relief Gel has a pleasant smell and will not stain clothing.

What happens if you use too much diclofenac gel? ›

Taking too much diclofenac sodium does not usually cause serious problems. The person may have some stomach pain and vomiting (possibly with blood). However, these symptoms will likely get better. In rare cases, a blood transfusion is needed.

Does Voltaren have any healing properties? ›

It works by pooling diclofenac on the surface of the skin, the medicine then penetrates the underlying tissues, targeting the inflamed tissues (e.g. around the joint to relieve pain, reduce inflammation and speed healing) to relieve pain, decrease swelling and support the healing process.

How often can you use Voltaren gel? ›

For osteoarthritis of the hands, elbows, or wrists using Voltaren® 1% gel: Adults—Apply 2 grams (g) to the affected skin areas four times a day (a total of 8 g each day). However, the total dose should not exceed 32 g per day over all affected joints.

Why can you only use Voltaren for 21 days? ›

Consumers should stop use and seek medical attention if their arthritis pain is not improved in 7 days or they need to use the product for more than 21 days. The active ingredient in Voltaren Arthritis Pain, diclofenac, may cause a severe allergic reaction, especially in people allergic to aspirin.

Does voltarol work for muscle pain? ›

With its triple effect, Voltarol Back and Muscle Pain Relief Gel relieves pain, reduces inflammation and helps speed up recovery. It brings targeted local relief for pain and swelling (inflammation) in muscles, back and neck.

Can I put Voltaren gel on my face? ›

The gel should be applied within the oblong area of the dosing card up to the 2 or 4 gram line (2 grams for each elbow, wrist, or hand, and 4 grams for each knee, ankle, or foot). Apply the medicine very carefully to clean, dry skin, and avoid getting any in your eyes, nose, or mouth.

Can you use voltarol on your knees? ›

Voltarol gels are medications that can help to relieve joint pain with various causes. Voltarol Osteoarthritis Joint Pain Relief Gel can relieve some of the pain linked to mild osteoarthritis of the knees or fingers.

Is voltarol a muscle relaxant? ›

Heat Patch. Voltarol Heat Patch is designed to target back and muscle pain, providing up to 24 hours of localised pain-relieving heat. The thin, self-adhesive, odourless patch provides effective pain relief and muscle relaxation in a non-medicated, tablet-free format.

Can you buy Voltaren emulgel? ›

Voltaren Emulgel has been available without prescription for years and is a common feature in many households, first-aid kits and gym bags. What makes this gel so special is that it both relieves pain and inflammation. Voltaren Emulgel is available in 50 g, 100 g tubes and dispenser 75 ml.

What is the difference between deep heat and deep freeze? ›

If you have a sprain or strain that is less than 48 hours old, you should avoid using heat rubs or sprays. Hot things increase the blood flow to the area and can cause more damage. Deep Freeze provides a cooling sensation to the area which reduces the blood flow and swelling to the area and helps the healing process.

Can you use Voltaren Gel for eczema? ›

Damaged or non-intact skin caused by skin diseases (eg, exudative dermatitis, eczema, infection lesions), burns, or wounds (for skin patch and topical system only)—Should not be used in patients with this condition.

What medications does Voltaren Gel interact with? ›

What Drugs, Substances, or Supplements Interact with Voltaren Gel? Potential drug interactions include aspirin, lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), blood pressure medications, methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), certain antibiotics, other topical product treatments, and anticoagulants.

Is Voltaren gel absorbed into the bloodstream? ›

Roach: Since topical applications of creams like Voltaren or Aspercream are absorbed into the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body, and do not go directly to the site of pain, is there an advantage to using them over oral NSAIDs?

What are the dangers of taking diclofenac? ›

NSAIDs such as diclofenac may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may develop at any time during treatment, may happen without warning symptoms, and may cause death.

Can you use Voltarol with high blood pressure? ›

For most people, taking diclofenac is safe. However, if you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, your kidneys do not work very well or you smoke, you should check with your healthcare professional that this medicine is appropriate. Use the lowest dose that works for you and stop as soon as you can.

Can I use Voltaren Gel on my back? ›

Voltaren Emulgel helps with the relief of localized traumatic inflammation and pain such as back pain. Back pain, especially lower back pain, is one of the most common causes of body pain.

Is Voltarol a steroid cream? ›

Voltarol Medicated Plaster

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory/analgesic drug which has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation-related pain and swelling.

Who should not use Voltarol gel? ›

This medicine is not recommended for use in children under 14 years of age. Do not apply the gel to skin that has (i) a rash or eczema (ii) cuts or open wounds. Stop the treatment if a skin rash develops after applying the product.

What are the side effects of Voltarol gel? ›

Side Effects of Voltarol
  • swelling.
  • nausea.
  • headache.
  • dizziness.
  • vomiting.
  • constipation.
  • pruritus.
  • pain in extremity.
9 Jan 2015

What is the generic name for Voltaren gel? ›

Nonprescription (over-the-counter) diclofenac topical gel (Voltaren Arthritis Pain) is used to relieve pain from arthritis in certain joints such as those of the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Prescription diclofenac topical solution (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees.

What strength is Voltaren gel? ›

VOLTAREN GEL (diclofenac sodium topical gel, 1%) is available in tubes containing 100 grams of the topical gel in each tube. Each tube contains diclofenac sodium in a gel base (10 mg of diclofenac sodium per gram of gel or 1%).

What happens if you use too much diclofenac gel? ›

Taking too much diclofenac sodium does not usually cause serious problems. The person may have some stomach pain and vomiting (possibly with blood). However, these symptoms will likely get better. In rare cases, a blood transfusion is needed.

What is the mechanism of action of diclofenac? ›

As with all NSAIDs, diclofenac exerts its action via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with relative equipotency.

How long does voltarol gel last? ›

Voltarol 12 Hour Joint Pain Relief Gel can be used for up to 14 days under pharmacy supervision.

How long does Voltaren emulgel stay in your system? ›

When you stop taking diclofenac tablets or capsules, or stop using the suppositories, the effects will wear off after about 15 hours. When you stop using the gel, plasters or patches, the effects will wear off after 1 or 2 days.

Does Voltarol work for muscle pain? ›

With its triple effect, Voltarol Back and Muscle Pain Relief Gel relieves pain, reduces inflammation and helps speed up recovery. It brings targeted local relief for pain and swelling (inflammation) in muscles, back and neck.

Is Voltaren Gel good for joint pain? ›

An alternative to pills, Voltaren gel is a topical analgesic that targets pain directly at the source to deliver nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine for powerful arthritis pain relief. Voltaren is clinically proven to relieve joint pain, reduce stiffness, and improve mobility.

Can you use Voltarol with ibuprofen? ›

Can you take Voltarol and Ibuprofen together? Voltarol (diclofenac) gel and ibuprofen are both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs. Voltarol and ibuprofen work in similar ways, therefore, you cannot take Voltarol and ibuprofen together at the same time.

Can you use Voltarol gel when pregnant? ›

Pain relief and pregnancy

The use of diclofenac in pregnant women has not been studied; therefore, Voltarol Emulgel products should not be used during pregnancy.

When is Voltaren contraindicated? ›

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

The use of Voltaren® Gel is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to diclofenac. Voltaren® Gel should not be administered in patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs.

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Dean Jakubowski Ret

Last Updated: 08/26/2022

Views: 6240

Rating: 5 / 5 (70 voted)

Reviews: 93% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Dean Jakubowski Ret

Birthday: 1996-05-10

Address: Apt. 425 4346 Santiago Islands, Shariside, AK 38830-1874

Phone: +96313309894162

Job: Legacy Sales Designer

Hobby: Baseball, Wood carving, Candle making, Jigsaw puzzles, Lacemaking, Parkour, Drawing

Introduction: My name is Dean Jakubowski Ret, I am a enthusiastic, friendly, homely, handsome, zealous, brainy, elegant person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.